The Strategic Role of Big Data Analytics in the Decision-Making Process
YAHIA BENYAHIA and FATIMA ZOHRA HENNANE
The topic of big data is one of the most important research topics in today’s world due to its effective role in monitoring future variables and trends in the decision-making of institutions of any kind, hi this context, this research paper highlights the importance of adopting big data analysis techniques in enterprises’ administrative systems because of their effective role in making accurate and right decisions that will achieve the objectives of the institution efficiently and effectively. This research paper has found that data analysis has become a stand-alone science adding to that there is a great interest from the part of institutions and government sectors to analyze and process big data and extract accurate information to benefit from decision-making.
Today, the world is witnessing major scientific and technological mutations in the field of information systems and technical coimnunication. With the emergence of “big data science” (big data), With its simplified concept, it expresses an enormous amount of complex data that is beyond the capacity of traditional software and computer machines to store, process, and distribute. It is characterized by its large levels of production and circulation in a short and fast time.
In addition to that, its sources are diverse and different from the traditional sources in terms of form and degree of credibility, which made the analysis of these data needs more sophisticated processing systems than the traditional ones. The most important systems are: Hadoop system, SapHana system, CouchDB system, etc.
As rivalry intensifies and customer demand increases, companies and even universities and research centers make efforts to learn the ability and control skills in the analytical methods and tools. Data analytics is a common factor that allows generating insights and patterns and contributes to the development of the decision-making process.
This chapter aims to tackle the following sections: Fust, the concept of big data, then the characteristics of big data, the next types of big data, later on, big data analysis tools, and finally, the role of big data in the decisionmaking process.
8.2 THE CONCEPT OF BIG DATA
In fact, no accurate definition of big data can be given, as it is a complex and multifaceted term. Wang, Xin, and Aksu have all pointed out that “the concept of big data” first appeared on (Lani) in 2001, describing it as “Data that cannot be processed by traditional data management tools.
Gallagher, Power, and Dollars analyzed 1,437 articles on big data and came up with a common definition that big data is: “The origin of information, which is characterized by large size, speed, and diversity and its analysis requires specific technical and analytical methods to convert them to value; large data comes from the process of accumulation of past and current information about the activity of individuals in various areas of life in order to predict behavior logically or take into account future needs” .
In 2014, the United Nations Economic and Social Council introduced the definition of big data as: “Data is large, quantitative, very fast, and very diverse to require cost-effective and fr amed forms for a deeper understanding and better use in decision-making” .
The official definition of big data, according to the McKinsey Institute, is that “a huge collection of data has reached a size that is beyond the capacity of traditional database tools to capture, store, manage, and analyze” .
Eric Schmidt, the former chief executive officer CEO of Google, preferred to give a simple and concise definition of big data away from complex scientific and academic concepts. “From the dawn of history to 2003, humanity produced 5 billion gigabytes of data distributed in the form of drawings, documents, and books.”
In 2011, 5 billion gigabytes of data were created in just two days, and in 2013, 5 billion gigabytes of data were created every 10 minutes. There is no doubt that the Internet has contributed a lot to achieve this amount of results; the amount of data traded through it is very large, which contributed to the formation of a giant network among billions of people .