According to Google’s CEO, from the dawn of time and up to 2003, humanity produced around 5 Gigabytes of information of different forms: documents, drawings, music, books, etc. In 2011 alone, the same amount of information was produced, yet, in 2013, the same number was produced hr 10 minutes, and about 90% of the existing data has been produced in the last two years.


“It is the massive speedy various data sets that can be processed and firmed to useful information which can be used for a better vision and decisionmaking” [3].

ISO, The International Organization for Standardization, defines big data as big dataset/s with characteristics (e.g., volume, velocity, variety, variability, veracity, etc.), that for a particular problem at a given point in time, cannot be efficiently processed using cunent/existing/established/traditional technologies and techniques in order to extract value [4].

It was also defined as “data that exceeds the processing capacity of conventional database systems. The data is big, moves too fast, or doesn’t fit the structures of the architecture of your database. To gain value from this data, you must choose an alternative way to process it” [5].


The most significant characteristics of big data are the 3 V: volume, velocity, variety, as called by Dumbill from O’Reilly, and IBM adds another V referring to veracity [6].

It refers to the amount of data extracted from a given topic; the volume and value of this data continue to increase: estimates indicate that about 90% of all ever data created has been produced in the last two years.

  • 1. Velocity: It is the speed at which data is created by different categories; everyone is producing a huge amount of information that requires speedy processing to extract relevant information about everyone.
  • 2. Variety: Data provided from the use of various smart devices and other sources allows foundations to have access to different types of structured and non-structured data such as sound, drawings, credit cards, videos, SMSs, and telephone calls.
  • 3. Veracity: It refers to properties like trustworthiness, relevance, and applicability of events and phenomena impacting the company, and that needs to be analyzed to extract useful true information leading to make as many combinations and associations which permit to make final decisions.
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