THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Sustainable development is one of the most important goals that organizations and governments want to reach through the use of different methods and strategies.
Since the official emergence of sustainable development, many researchers and international organizations have been exposed to its definition because of the importance of this topic, thus gaining great global attention, especially after the emergence of the Brundtland report entitled “Our Common Future” Prepared by the World Environment and Development Committee in 1987.
The first definition of sustainable development was established in this report as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs ,” and the report issued by the World Resources Institute included the limitation of 20—a broadly worded definition of sustainable development.
The report divided these definitions into four groups: economic, environmental, social, and technological. Economically means sustainable development of developed countries to reduce energy consumption, and resources for underdeveloped countries means employment. Resources to raise the standard of living and reduce poverty- Socially and humanly means seeking to stabilize population growth and raise the level of health sendees, especially in rural areas, but at the environmental level.
It means protecting natural resources and optimizing the use of agricultural land and water resources, and finally, it means moving society to the age of clean industries that use environmentally clean technology and produce minimal polluting, heat produces minimal pollution, heat-trapping, and ozone-harmful gases .
FAO defines sustainable development as managing and protecting the natural resource base and guiding technical and institutional change in a way that ensures that the human needs of present and future generations are achieved and continue to be met so that this development seeks to protect the earth.
Water and plant and animal genetic sources are not harmful to the environment and are technically appropriate, economically appropriate, and socially acceptable. Social, environmental, and technological and contribute to maximizing growth in the previous four systems . The dimensions of sustainable development are:
1. The Economic Dimension: The economic dimension of sustainable development represents the current and future effects of the economy on the environment and raises the issue of selecting, financing, and improving industrial techniques in the field of the employment of natural resources .
- 2. The Social Dimension: The social dimension of sustainable development focuses on the fact that human beings are at the center and core, both as a means and a goal, and therefore concerned with: Social justice, equality, and the fight against poverty by supporting national action plans and programs ; and by providing and improving the level of major social services to all those in need. Sustainable development is particularly characteristic with this dimension, as the human dimension of the narrow sense makes gr owth a way for social integration, and the process of development in the political selection and this choice must be accepted by all Choose away between the people selections as they are between the countries.
- 3. The Environmental Dimension: In their approach to sustainable development, environmentalists focus on the concept of ‘environmental boundaries,’ which means that each natural ecosystem has certain limits that cannot be exceeded by consumption and depletion, and any encroachment on this natural capacity means that the ecosystem is degraded. So sustainability from an environmental perspective always means setting limits to consumption, population growth, pollution, poor production patterns, water depletion, deforestation, and soil erosion .
Sustainable development, through its mechanism and content, seeks to achieve a set of goals that can be summarized as follows :
- • To achieve a better quality of life for the population, where sustainable development is pursued through the planning process and implementation of development policies to improve the quality of life of members of society economically, socially, and psychologically by focusing on the qualitative aspects of growth in a fair and secure manner.
- • Respect for the natural environment, where sustainable development focuses on the activities of the population, deals with natural systems and their content on the basis of human life, or simply a development that understands the sensitive relationship between nature and the built environment, and develops this relationship into a relationship of integration and harmony.
- • To enhance the awareness of the population of existing environmental problems, where then sense of direction belongs, and encourage them to actively participate in finding appropriate solutions through their participation in the preparation, implementation, follow-up, and evaluation of sustainable development programs and projects.
- • Achieving the rational exploitation and use of resources, where such development treats natural resources as limited resources, thus preventing depletion or destruction and rationally using and employing them.
- • Linking modem technology to society’s objectives, where it tries to employ modem technology to serve the goals of society by educating the population about the importance of various technologies in the field of development and how to use them to improve the quality of life.
Therefore, human beings are an essential element of sustainable development, as they seek to meet their needs and organize their lives so that they can deal with natural resources with knowledge and wisdom.