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1 I have worked and conducted research in Kenya since 2005, with a concentrated period of ethnographic research between 2009 and 2010 and subsequent trips in 2011,2012, 2016,2017 and 2019.


Bakkali.Y. (2019) ‘Dying to live: Youth violence and the munpain’. The Sociological Review. https://doi. org/10.1177/0038026119842012

Bhabha, H. K. (2004) The Location of Culture (2nd ed.). Routledge: London, New York.

Biehl, J. and Locke, P. (2017) Unfinished:Tbe Anthropology of Becoming. Duke University Press Books: Durham. Caldeira.T. P. (2017) ‘Peripheral urbanization: Autoconstruction, transversal logics, and politics in cities of the global south’. Environ Plan D, 35, 3-20. Clifford, J. and Marcus, G. E. (Eds.) (2010) Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography (2nd ed., 25th anniversary ed.). University of California Press: Berkeley Los Angeles London.

Cooper, E. and Pratten, D. (Eds.) (2015) Ethnographies of Uncertainty in Africa, Anthropology, Change, and Development. Palgrave Macmillan: United Kingdom, Fredericks, R. (2014) “‘The old man is dead”: Hip hop and the arts of citizenship of Senegalese youth’.

Antipode, 46,130-148. 12036 Geertz, C. (1977) The Interpretation of Cultures (new edition). Basic Books: New York.

Gilroy, P. (1993) The Black Atlantic - Modernity and Double Consciousness (1st ed.).Verso Books: London. Githiora, C. (2018) Slieng: Rise of a Kenyan Swahili Vernacular. James Currey:Woodbridge, Suffolk.

Hake, A. (1977) African Metropolis: Nairobi’s Self-Help City (1st ed.). Sussex University Press: London.

Hancox, D. (2019) Inner City Pressure: The Story of Crime. William Collins: London.

Jeffrey, C. and Dyson, ). (2008) Telling Young Lines: Portraits of Global Youth. Temple University Press: Philadelphia, PA.

Katz, C. (2004) Crowing Up Global (1st ed.). University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis.

Kidula, J. N. (2012) The local and global Kenyan rap and hip hop culture, in Hip Hop Africa: New African Music in a Globalizing World. Ed. Eric Charry. Indiana University Press: Indiana, pp. 171-186.

MacGaffeyJ. (1991) The Real Economy of Zaire:The Contribution of Smuggling and Other Unofficial Activities to National Wealth. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Massey, D. (1998) Spatial Construction ofYouth Cultures, in Skelton, T, Valentine, G. (Eds.), Cool Places: Geographies ofYouth Cultures. Routledge: London, pp. 121-129.

Newell, S. (2012) The Modernity Bluff: Crime, Consumption, and Citizenship in Cote d’Ivoire. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Ntarangwi, M. (2009) East African Hip Hop:Youth Culture and Globalization (1st ed.). University of Illinois Press: Urbana.

Parnell, S. and Pieterse, E. (2014) Africa’s Urban Revolution (1st ed.). Zed Books Ltd: London.

Richardson, C. and Skott-Myhre, H. A. (Eds.) (2012) Habitus of the Hood. Intellect Books: Bristol.

Rollefson, G. (2017) Flip the Script. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

van Stapele, N. (2016) ‘“We are not Kenyans”: Extra-judicial killings, manhood and citizenship in Mathare, a Nairobi ghetto’. Conflict, Security & Development, 16, 301-325. 16.1200313.

Thieme.T. (2016) ‘The ghetto will always be my living room’ in Hustling and Belonging in the Nairobi Slums, in Rethinking Life at the Margins :The Assemblage of Contexts, Subjects, and Politics. Chapter 7. https://

Thieme.T. A., (2015)‘Turning hustlers into entrepreneurs,and social needs into market demands: Corporate- community encounters in Nairobi, Kenya’. Geoforum, 59, 228-239. https://doi.Org/10.1016/j. geoforum.2014.11.010

Thieme.T. A. (2018) ‘The hustle economy: Informality, uncertainty and the geographies of getting by’. Progress in Human Geography, 42, 529-548. https://doi.Org/10.l 177/0309132517690039.

Weiss, B. (2009) Street Dreams and Hip Hop Barbershops: Global Fantasy in Urban Tanzania. Indiana University Press: Bloomington.

White,J. (2020) Terraformed:Young Black Lives in the Inner City. Repeater Books: London.


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