The Routledge International Handbook of Interactionism

INTRODUCTIONWhy a new handbook?Structure of the handbookVarieties of interactionismSelf, identity and emotionsSocial organizationInteraction, media and the InternetNew developments in methodsReimagining interactionismNoteReferencesVarieties of interactionismPRAGMATISM AND INTERACTIONIntroductionModes of organism-environment interactionSocial interaction and the emergence of the self through perspective-takingThe refinement of perspective-taking in the course of socialisationPragmatist social theory and the interactionist tradition in sociologyExperience, social objects, and meaning as products of interactionThe social constitution and transformations of the selfPerspective-taking, emotions, and social orderThe universalisation, hierarchies, and conflicts of perspectivesConcluding remarksNotesReferencesHERBERT BLUMER, SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM, AND 21ST-CENTURY SOCIOLOGYOpening Pandora’s box: paradigmatic clashes in the social sciencesRooted in pragmatismPremises, “root images,” and central conceptionsProcesses within processesEmergenceSocial causation, macro social phenomena: industrialization and race prejudiceConclusionReferencesSTRAUSSIAN NEGOTIATED ORDER THEORY c. 1960-PRESENTStraussian negotiated order and social worlds/arenas theoriesEarly negotiated order research (c. 1960-1990)Later negotiated order research (c. 1990-2020)Contemporary reincarnations of negotiated order theory and research, c. 1990-presentConclusionsNotesReferencesRECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE NEW IOWA SCHOOL OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISMManford Kuhn and Carl Couch - from Iowa to new Iowa SchoolStrains of Couch’s scholarshipSymbolic interactionismQualitative laboratory researchInformation technologiesFusion of strainsConclusion: digital sociology - the new Iowa School approachReferencesDRAMATURGICAL FRAMEWORKS AND INTERACTIONISMGoffman’s breakthroughDramaturgy, impression management, presentation of self and dramatismGoffman’s dramaturgical principlesDramaturgy assessedStudies in dramaturgyReferencesETHNOMETHODOLOGY AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS The other interactionismIntroductionThe marginalization of studies of social interactionOverview of the development of ethnomethodologyOrigins and early development of ethnomethodologyThe trust argumentThe development of ethnomethodology after 1954Collaboration with Sacks, studies in ethnomethodology, and studies of workThe development of conversation analysisConclusionNotesReferencesPART3 Self, identity and emotionsCLICK, VALIDATE, AND REPLY Three paradoxes of the terminal self IntroductionHypermodernism: acceleration and digital colonizationClick: adjustments in sensory-motor skills and perceptionValidate: adjustments in the need for social recognitionReply: adjustments in emotional dispositionsDisconnect: terminal paradoxesNotesReferencesANIMAL SELFHOODAnimals as minded social actorsFrom personhood to selvesAgency: the active self-experienceCoherence: the embodied self-experienceAffectivity: the emotional self-experienceSelf-continuity: the continuous self-experienceAnimal selves and their implicationsReferencesTHE SELF AND THE SUPERNATURALIntroductionWhat are supernatural experiences?Managing the self and the supernaturalThe trouble with supernatural experiencesThe body and experiencing ghostsMaking the invisible visibleBecoming supernaturalEmpty spaces and supernatural inferenceBodily gesture and supernatural featuresConclusionNotesReferencesTHE (UN)HEALTHY BODY AND THE SELFInteractionism, selves, bodies, emotionsCritical body studiesAffect studiesDisability studiesTransgender studiesThe over-medicalisation of devianceThe medical surveillance of marginalised groupsConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesIDENTITY AND RACIALIZATION IntroductionConcepts and combination: when “identity” met “racialization”Power and pathos: what these terms (don’t) give usThe reticule of “race”: more than identityConclusionNotesReferencesSYMBOLIC INTERACTION BEYOND BINARIES Identity workThe interactional construction of sexNavigating non-binary gendersSeeing sexual fluidityClosing remarksReferencesCULTURE AND EMOTION Interactionist perspectivesPragmatist roots of culture theoryEmotional culture(s): the conceptEmotional culture todayThe primacy of subjectivity and feelingThe conjunction today of identity and emotionEmotional intensityNoteReferencesSocial organisationORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONSIntroductionThe problem of organizations and institutions and associated analysesSymbolic interactionism and inattention to organizational and institutional concernsInteractionism’s institutional approachThe implications and impacts of new institutionalism as a disciplinary shiftContemporary interactionist institutional approachesConclusionNotesReferencesSYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM, SOCIAL STRUCTURE, AND SOCIAL CHANGE Historical debates and contemporary challengesCritiques and debates of the astructural biasSymbolic interaction, social structure, and social change: the gender question#MeToo and the definition of the situationConcluding thoughtsNotesReferencesMENTAL HEALTH AND SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM Untapped opportunitiesThe experience of mental healthFrom the power of labels to the disadvantages of stigmaIllness as a product of interaction patternsSocial control and the mindConclusionReferencesHANDLING VIDEO OF [POLICE] VIOLENCE Theoretical versus practical analysesIntroductionSociology’s approach to videos of violenceAn ambiguous case of police violenceInterpreting video from a uniquely adequate frameworkInterpreting video as evidence - reasoning with moving imagesDiscussion and conclusionNotesReferencesSPACE, MOBILITY, AND INTERACTIONSocial organisation, spatial relationships, and interactionismSocial settings, spatial arrangements, and territoriesSocial settings and a sense of placeSettings and spatial arrangementsTerritories and the selfMoving into interaction and interaction on the moveConclusionNotesReferencesNATURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INTERACTIONIntroductionThe new ecological paradigm: symbolic interactionism as human exemptionalism?Symbolic interaction, George Herbert Mead, and environmental sociologyEmerging themes in interactionist approaches to the environmentConstructing and framing natureEnvironmental identities, lifestyles, and practicesConclusion: the importance of an interactionist approach to the environmentNotesReferencesTHE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF TIMEWorldCultureOrganizationEncounterSelfConclusionReferencesCOLLECTIVE MEMORYRemembering collective memoryCollective memory as interactionally producedHow people shape collective memoryHow people use collective memoryHow people control and shape others’ collective memoryFraming, authenticity, and bracketingProcesses of collective forgettingGroup struggle, politics, and powerConclusionReferencesInteractionism, media and the InternetMEDIA LOGIC, FEAR, AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF TERRORISMThe mass media and media logicMediatization, digital media, and the E-AudienceIdentity, news, fear, and terrorismPropaganda of fear and terrorismConclusionReferencesPUBLIC FEAR AND THE MEDIAEthnographers and ordinary concernsFolklorists and the meanings of jokes and legendsPublic opinion polls and concernConcern and constructing social problemsDrama and the mediaCultural doubtsThe place of fear of sociological thinkingReferencesPOLICING AND SOCIAL MEDIAIntroductionPolice and mediaSocial media and the emergence of crime 2.0Policing in the mediated communication orderConditioning the publicSelf-promotionThe expansion of police social controlConclusionNoteReferencesINTERACTIONISM AND ONLINE IDENTITY How has interactionism contributed to understandings of online identity?The Goffmanian approach to selfFacework onlineThe challenge of context collapseThe Goftmanian contribution and its limitsThe discursive model of selfDiscursive model of self in the digital contextWhat has interactionism contributed to understandings of online identity?Combining Goffman and the discursive modelLimitations and future directionsReferencesPHYSICAL CO-PRESENCE AND DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF ONLINE INTERACTIONSIntroductionLack of physical co-presenceDocumenting past conversations: living archivesN-adic structure of online disclosuresConclusionReferencesHAPPY BIRTHDAY, MICHAEL JACKSON Dead celebrity and online interactionIntroductionCelebrities, living and deadSocial media, interactions, and selvesData and analysisOverview of the birthday threadAddressing the dead directlyAddressing other fansDiscussion and conclusionsReferencesMULTIPLAYER ONLINE GAMINGIntroductionMultiplayer gaming goes onlineInterfaces: the sites of interactionMaking meaning through game UIsMaking meaning togetherFrom meaning-making to coordinated action and groupsConclusion: multiplayer online gaming goes into the futureReferencesNew developments in methodsSITUATIONAL ANALYSIS AS CRITICAL PRAGMATIST INTERACTIONISMIntroductionMapping in situational analysisCritical interactionismSymbolic interactionism and critical social theory in situational analysisDoing critical interactionist analyses with situational analysisConclusionsNotesBibliographyVIDEO IN INTERACTIONIST RESEARCHVideo in social researchHistory of the use of video for the analysis of interactionVideographyCase study: videographic investigation of the analysis activity in a market research companyExample analysis ‘coding experiment’9Clarification of context knowledgePrinciples of sequential analysisConnecting the sequential analysis to theoretical conceptsNotesReferencesDIGITAL NATURALISM Ethnography in networked worldsParticipating: naturalism in the networked ageNaturalism and ethnographySpace, relations, and physicalityFollowing spaces in online studiesLurking and participationEnvironments and surroundings: architecture and action“Structures”Constructing structure from belowMore adaptation, more normal ethnographyNotesReferencesETHICS IN SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONAL RESEARCHCharacteristics of ethical social research in symbolic interactionismClosing the distance between researcher and research participantAcknowledging that the wide range of methods and research settings requires ethical nuancesRecognizing the role of the larger social and cultural contexts in the life of research participantsNurturing human dignityFinal considerationsNotesReferencesReimagining interactionismTOWARD AN EXPANDED DEFINITION OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISMKey pragmatist assumptionsThe implications of interactionism for methodsBridging theory and methodsThe significance of neoliberalismExpanding the definition of symbolic interactionismNotesReferencesSOME ANTINOMIES OF INTERACTIONISMProcess versus structureMeanings as functional or epistemic in characterConclusionNotesReferencesINTERACTIONIST RESEARCH Extending methods, extending fieldsIntroductionExtensionsExtending the gazeExtending the ethnographerExtending analysis and representationConclusionReferencesTHE NEW HORIZONS OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISMSymbolic interactionism’s triumphs and challengesKey concerns and new horizonsThe self, identity theory, and identity workProblems and directions in studies of the selfEmotions, emotion work, and embodimentNew horizons for studies of emotion and embodimentThe interaction order, social coordination, and social problemsNew horizons in the study of social coordination and social problemsPower, social organization, and social movementsNew horizons in the interactionist analysis of power, structure, and inequalityThe future of symbolic interactionismReferences
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