Evaluating Environment in International Development


: Evaluating environment in international development: An introductionIntroductionThe potential of evaluationSustainable development and the environmentValuing natural capitalEvaluating the environment beyond projectsThemesConclusionNotesReferences: A global public goods perspective on environment and povertyRedefining international cooperationDefining public goodsPublic action on public goodsEnding poverty: a global public good?Ensuring environmental services: a global public goodLinkages between poverty and the environmentLocal, national, regional and global public goodsFrom trade-offs to win–win optionsConclusions for evaluatorsFrom ex ante to ex post “relevance”From impact as relationship to impact as final goalFrom sustainability to adaptabilityNotesReferences: Evaluation at the nexus: Evaluating sustainable development in the 2020sSustainability-ready evaluationTheory of Change for sustainability-ready evaluationIs evaluation ready for sustainability?Some implications of ignoring sustainability and the natural systemKey elements of evaluation at the nexusValue the natural systemValue is multi-dimensional: Economic, social, cultural, spiritual, traditional and above all politicalAttend to core technical differencesScales and units of accountConnect to natural and broader human systemsEmphasise useSummaryNotesReferences: Poverty, climate change and disaster risk reduction: Too complex to evaluate?Climate change and povertyBackgroundPoverty–climate interactionsResponding to climate changeDisaster risk reductionDisaster risk reduction and the SDGsThe Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–2030Climate change and disaster risk reduction across regionsDisasters in the Asia-Pacific regionSouth AsiaThe Caribbean regionOverview of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reductionEvaluation challenges of interventions in overlapping areasThe evaluation repertoireEvaluation among international agenciesCan evaluation adequately address the increasing complexity posed by climate change and disasters?Refining theory-based approachesNotesReferencesWebsitesII: Approaches and challenges in evaluating environment and sustainable development: Using big data and geospatial approaches in evaluating environmental interventionsIntroduction and backgroundApplications of geospatial analysis in environmental evaluationCase 1. Geospatial analysis to assess the relevance of GEF support to protected areasCase 2. Geospatial analysis to assess socio-economic co-benefits of GEF-supported interventionsCase 3. Geospatial analysis in measuring the sustainability of environmental outcomes in the Ba Be protected area Case 4. Geospatial analysis in ecological forecasting in KenyaGEF supported protected areas in KenyaConclusionAcknowledgmentsNoteReferences: MULTIPLE ACTORS AND CONFOUNDING FACTORS: Evaluating impact in complex social-ecological systemsThe GEF and its support in the South China Sea Assessing direct impactDetermining the extent of changeEstablishing a chain of causalityDiscounting rival hypothesesAssessing progress towards impactConclusionPostscript, 2020From evaluating static long-term goals to evaluating development trajectoriesNotesReferences: Assessing progress towards impacts in environmental programmes using the field Review of Outcomes to Impacts methodologyImpacts in the context of environmental programmes and projectsThe elements of a Theory of Change for environmental interventionsThe field Review of Outcomes to Impacts methodologyDesk researchKey informantsField investigationsReporting of the assessment findingsBackground: the Seychelles Marine Ecosystem Management ProjectThe impacts towards which the SEYMEMP would contributeOutlining the outcomes–impacts Theory of Change for SEYMEMPEvaluating progress against the Theory of ChangeAssessment of progress towards Intermediate State 3: implementation and mainstreaming of enabling marine policies at national and regional levelsTheory of Change assessmentOutcomesImpact drivers/external assumptionsOverview of progress towards Intermediate State 3Assessment of progress towards Intermediate State 1: coping mechanisms addressing major threats to marine ecosystems are rolled out nationally Overview of progress towards achieving Intermediate State 1Assessment of progress towards Intermediate State 2: marine protected area network is being managed effectively to achieve conservation goalsCurrent status of progress towards the intended impactsOverall conclusions on progress towards impacts of the SEYMEMPOverall conclusions on assessing progress towards impacts in environmental programmes using the field Review of Outcomes to Impacts (ROtI) methodologyNotesReferences: Meta-analysis of climate mitigation evaluationsIntroductionSome persistent climate mitigation evaluation questionsObjective and methodology of the meta-analysisProgramme logic for climate change mitigation: the Theory of No ChangeThe evaluation framework of Tokle and Uitto (2009)Evaluation frameworkAn abstract description of the potential barrier typesThe stakeholder–barrier matrixA mapping tool for barriers and interventionsThe barrier circleThe intervention circlePutting the two togetherSummary and outlookNotesReferences: A programme theory approach to evaluating normative environmental interventionsIntroductionThe nature of normative environmental workEvaluation approachesDiscussion of evaluation methodsTheory-based approaches: causal pathways – theory of changeDoes the linear nature of Theory of Change constrain its validity and application?Application of the Theory of Change approach to evaluating normative environmental projects and programmesThe ‘Synergies Decisions’ of the Stockholm, Basel and Rotterdam conventionsThe Global Environment Facility joint geothermal imaging projectForest certification: normative work leading to quantified benefits through a regulatory frameworkProgramme theory and results-based monitoring and evaluationEvaluating the cost-effectiveness of normative workConclusionNotesReferences: From evaluation of joint programmes to joint evaluation of SDGs-ready interventions: Lessons from the Joint GEF-UNDP Evaluation of the Small Grants ProgrammeIntroductionOverview of joint evaluationsSDGs and joint evaluationThe joint GEF-UNDP evaluation of the Small Grants ProgrammeLessons from the joint evaluation of the SGP#1 Deciding on a joint evaluation#2 Partnership arrangements#3 Timing#4 Management structure#5 Scope#6 Multidimensional analysis#7 Methods and tools#8 Reducing multiple messages while multiplying useConclusionsNotesReferences: Evaluating the poverty–environment nexus in AfricaBackgroundWhy might poverty and environment be linked in Africa?Why evaluate the poverty-environment nexus?Scope and method of the poverty–environment nexus evaluationChallenges and limitationsFindings: country case studiesMaliMoroccoRwandaThe United Republic of TanzaniaOverall findings: the retrospectiveConclusion: the prospectNotesReferences: Small grants, big impacts: Aggregation challengesIntroductionGEF small grants programmeSGP structure Global-level managementCountry-level managementSGP operational challengesChallenge to coordinate country programmes for coherent global objectivesTension between community needs and global environmental mandateSGP evaluationsAggregation challenges: measuring local actions through global lensesFocal area-based environmental indicators versus inclusive community developmentProject-based evaluation versus programming approachUnit of analysis: community project versus country programmeNon-environmental impacts of SGPBaseline and scale of measurementDecentralized operation of SGP versus global aggregationStandardization versus diversificationConclusionNotesReferences: Green economy performance of environmental initiatives in Latin America and the CaribbeanIntroductionMethodological framework for assessing green economy performance of environmental initiatives in developing countriesEvidence-based criteriaEcosystem protectionEconomic growthSocial equityGrade system to assess green performanceEnvironmental initiatives in Latin America and the CaribbeanForest: national foresty financing fund in Costa RicaFreshwater: water protection fund, Quito, EcuadorRenewable energy: solar water heaters in BarbadosCities: sustainable urban planning in Curitiba, BrazilAssessment of the initiativesMajor themes: enabling conditions and financingEnabling conditionsFinancingGreen economy performanceNational forestry financing fund, Costa RicaWater protection fund, Quito, EcuadorSolar water heaters in BarbadosSustainable urban development in Curitiba, BrazilLessons learned and opportunities for improvementStrengthsWeaknessesChallengesOpportunitiesConclusionNotesReferences: Evaluating international support for transboundary aquifer management programmesIntroductionSignificance of transboundary aquifersInternational community engagementInternational law and conventionsOfficial financial flows and international support for water and sanitationUN and multilateral agency attention to groundwater and aquifer managementThe global environment facilityEvaluating GEF transboundary aquifer projectsIullemeden aquifer systemNorthwest SaharaGuaraní aquiferDinaric Karst aquifer systemSouthern African development community groundwater and drought management projectFuture considerations for transboundary aquifer projectsNotesReferences: Disaster risk management in the SDG eraIntroductionPoverty, vulnerability and disaster riskNational initiativesIntergovernmental responseApproach, data and methodsUNDP responseFindingsWorking with national systemsAddressing multiple and interlinking crisesClimate change adaptation and disaster risk reductionPromoting gender equalityBuilding local-level capacitiesConclusionNotesReferences: The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research approach to evaluation of climate change, environment, and natural resource managementIntroductionCGIAR and its role in climate change, environment, and natural resource managementEnvironmental, climate change, and natural resource management activities in CGIAR: development and sustainabilityNotable examples of CGIAR studies on natural resource management and environmental impactsCGIAR approaches to evaluation and impact assessmentQualitative and quantitative methodsBaseline dataCounterfactualsValuation methodsThe rise of climate change investments and evaluationGlobal context in climate change research and policyEvaluation of climate change and CCAFS in the new setting of the CGIARConclusionNotesReferences