Nexus dynamics of refugee policy, sexual violence, and oil conflicts
In summary, this section first tracked the evolution of international refugee policy from limited understanding of refugees as people forced to flee conflict and persecution to broader perspectives of people forced to leave their homeland by the nexus dynamics of conflict, violence, disaster, and climate. The second part uncovered particular risks to women and girls of sexual violence and exploitation during flight and a blind spot in policy that obliviates their protection from such harms, that were both attributed to a global phenomenon of ‘rape culture’ that dehumanizes women and girls as exploitable resources. The third part identified oil-based conflicts as struggles in global economics that evidence the priority of profit over life. That is, contemporary extreme capital accepts the military doctrine of ‘double-effect,’ i.e. justification of a secondary impact that is not intended but knowingly cannot be avoided in a necessary action, because extreme capital understands the meaning of human existence to be individual accumulation of private wealth.
This section accordingly concludes that in a second kind of nexus dynamics—capital, oil, and global economics—humanitarian crises and atrocities are collateral damage in battles of wealth and power. Within this egregious incapacity for moral awareness, a third set of nexus dynamics—capital, gender bias, and policy—works internationally to force women and girls into migration that exposes them to dehumanizing objectification and abjectification in which they are reduced to the exploitable resource of their body with no regard for their well-being, autonomy, or survival. The shared factor across all three nexus dynamics discussed in this paper is capital. Given that overwhelmingly, oil executives, high-level politicians, and sexual abusers are men (also when men are the object), one can conclude not that all men are profiteers and abusers, but that a phallic logic of wealth and power drives profiteering and sexual abuse.