The Sociology of Assessment: Comparative and Policy Perspectives:The Selected Works of Patricia Broa

Preface Assessment, accountability and performance: the changing relations of power in educationAcknowledgementsPreviously published chaptersI The rationality of judgementCompetence, competition, content and control: How assessment mediates the relationship between education and societyIntroductionThe characteristics of industrial societyWeber and the rise of rationalityThe Protestant ethicBureaucracyDurkheim and the problem of social controlBernstein and the significance of educational codesRationality and legitimationFoucault and the power relations of discourseASSESSMENT AND THE NATIONAL CONTEXTThe social construction of education systemsArcher’s model of education systemsThe ideological contextModes of system controlControl by assessment: a modelNotesReferencesSelection, certification and control: Meritocracy or social reproduction?An exercise in double-thinkThe liberal-reformist ideologyAssessment in a conflict perspectiveThe correspondence theoryAssessment as a mechanism of social reproductionAssessment as part of the hegemonyAssessment and control: a new perspectiveSummaryReferencesII Insights from comparing national education systemsTowards a focus on learning and culture: Time for a new approach to comparative education?RetrospectProvision and product: delivery systems of educationProspectReferencesNew forms of system control: The power of assessment as a tool for accountability and legitimationAccountability, legitimation and valuesTwo different contexts for accountabilityDevelopments in capitalism and associated forms of accountabilityContent versus form in accountability relationsThe limitations of bureaucratic controlThe impact of technological rationalityTechnocratic approaches to managementConclusionAcknowledgementNotesReferencesUsing the comparative approach to understand teachers’ priorities: The ‘Bristaix’ study of English and French educationMethodologyRestricted versus extended professionality(1) Responsibility to pupils, parents, head and colleagues(2) Responsibility for other professional activitiesProblematic versus axiomatic conceptions of teachingProcess versus product of learningUniversalism versus particularismImplicationsAcknowledgementNoteReferencesValues, understanding and power: Mapping the impact of assessment policy changes on teachers’ practice through the PACE ...IntroductionThe salient findings and arguments of the bookEchoes of the pastTeachers’ perspectives on their professional roleTeachers and the curriculumPupils and the curriculumTeachers and pedagogyPupils and pedagogyTeacher assessmentStandardized assessmentAnalytical themes: values, understanding and powerValuesUnderstandingPowerDimensions of change revisitedSchool changeTeacher professionalismClassroom change and pupil experienceConclusionBibliographyComparing influences on pupil achievement: Insights from the QUEST projectThe context for qualityFrance and England: similar but differentResearch designThe learning contextPedagogy and learning styleNational differences in performanceThe power of expectationsConclusionNotesReferencesCulture, context and policy: New perspectives on learning from the ENCOMPASS study of pupils in England, France and DenmarkIntroductionAt the level of national policy discourse in the three countries, what are seen as the main aims of secondary schooling?How do schools mediate national policy discourses?How do teachers mediate these agendas to pupils?What are the main influences on students’ views of learning and on the development of their identity as a learner?What is the relative significance of intra-national differences in social class and gender and ethnicity as compared with inter-national differences?Constants and contexts in pupil experienceOverview of findingsTowards a new perspective on learningThe socio-historic: national culture and the implications of globalizationThe interpersonal: the influence of peers and local cultural settingsThe intra-individual: influences in a ‘learning career’Implications for policy and practiceBibliographyIII Assessment as a policy toolPerformativity versus empowerment: How the ‘assessment society’ is inhibiting the advent of a ‘learning society’IntroductionEnter the ‘learning society’The assessment panaceaControl and legitimation: the role of ‘performativity’To measure or to learn: two assessment discoursesRhetoric or reality in assessment change?ConclusionNotesReferencesAssessment as a social technology: The socio-cultural origins and implications of the ‘standards’ agendaIntroductionThe context for changeThe 1988 Education Reform ActBack to basics … again?Assessment, the ‘pedagogic device’ and instrumentalismWhither lifelong learning?ConclusionNoteReferencesIV Anticipating the futureAssessment for learning and the digital revolutionEnter the ‘assessment society’: International trends and future challengesIntroductionOur approachPurposes of assessmentInternational trendsQuality concernsAssessment for learningThe way forward: redefining assessment?Notes on contributorsNoteReferencesChallenging the status quo: The potential of assessment for learningFrom summative to formativeLearningMotivation, effort and goal orientationSelf-esteem and self-efficacySelf-regulation and strategic awarenessSupport and feedbackUsing feedback to support learningTen Principles of Assessment for LearningSummaryReferencesTowards an assessment revolution?: The potentially transforming potential of computer-based assessmentIntroductionAims, scope and methodology of the research reviewRationaleAssessment in a changing worldDigital technologies, learning and assessmentA brief history of digital technologies and assessmentOpportunities afforded by technology enhanced assessmentNew forms of representing knowledge and skillsCrowd sourcing and decision-making opportunities in assessmentIncreasing flexibilitySupporting and enhancing collaborationAssessing complex problem-solving skillsEnhancing feedback to studentsInnovation in recording achievementExploiting learning analytics locally and nationallyThe challenges and risks of technology enhanced assessmentChallenges to the implementation of TEARisks associated with implementing TEAEthical issues associated with implementing TEAThe risks of social exclusion associated with TEADiscussion and conclusionsQuestion 1: How can TEA move beyond patchy, incremental change?Question 2: How can we address the ethical and social risks that TEA brings forward?Question 3: How can TEA overcome the constraints of policy conservatism?Recommendations for research and practiceAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesEpiloguePostscriptSome thoughts on assessment in the post COVID-19 world
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