Routledge Handbook on Contemporary Egypt

I HistoryIntroduction: Occupation, independence, revolutionOccupationIndependence with reservations: The settlement of 1923The coming revolutionThe coercive stateSadat as presidentThe long Mubarak presidencyConclusionReferencesBuilding the Egyptian state?Infrastructural systems, education, and urbanization (1919–2011)IntroductionInfrastructureWater and sewerage systemsTransportation and rail networksEducationConclusionNotesReferencesThe ideological roots of authoritarianism in EgyptIntroductionThe ambivalence of liberalismSocial citizenship and its contendersSocial freedom under NasserSadat’s corrective revolutionConclusionReferencesEgypt’s foreign policy from Faruq to MubarakIntroductionForeign policy in the liberal eraNasser’s revolutionary foreign policySadat’s “electric-shock” foreign policyMubarak’s foreign policyNotesReferencesActivism and contentious politics in Egypt: The case of the student movementIntroductionThe early stages of student activismStudent activism under Nasser: The peak of influence?Sadat and a new wave of student activismStudent activism under MubarakThe rise and fall of student activism post-January 25Student activism as viewed by othersIncreased restrictions on student activismTowards a “reformist” approachConnecting the student movement to a broader policy toward youthConclusionNotesReferencesFraming the past: Historian, state and societyIntroductionDevelopment of the professionThe royalist schoolThe academic traditionBeyond the academyState authority and historical scholarshipA gendered perspectiveThe constraint of the archiveDocumenting the January RevolutionConclusionNotesReferencesII PoliticsIntroduction: The evolution of military rule in EgyptNasser and the Free OfficersNaguib and Nasser: 1952–1954Nasser and Amer: 1954–1967SadatShifting the centers of powerBuilding a party of patronageForeign friends and police partnersPlanting the seeds of Military Inc.MubarakAbu Ghazala: 1981–1989Tantawi and ERSAP: 1991– 2000Gamal and friends: 2000– 2011Revolution and counterrevolution: 2011–2019ConclusionNoteReferencesGenesis of coup-proofing in Egypt: Civil–military relations under King Faruq and beyondIntroductionFaruq’s coup-proofingFostering ideological bonds with the thronePromoting the material interests of the military eliteCounterbalancingBeyond Faruq: Coup-proofing under NasserFostering ideological bondsPromoting material interestsCounterbalancingConclusionReferencesThe fingers of the “invisible hand”: Egypt’s government institutionsIntroductionEgypt’s government institutions under EAF controlThe national level: Constitutional stipulations versus political realitiesThe presidencyThe ministriesParliamentJudiciaryThe local level: Much of the sameConclusionReferencesIslamism in EgyptIntroductionState institutions: Al-Azhar, Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah, and AwqafThe Muslim BrotherhoodSalafists: The ambivalent revolutionariesIslamists and religious minoritiesConclusionNotesReferencesCivil society and revolution (2000–present)IntroductionA new face for civil society in Egypt (2000–2011)Uprisings: Civil society and the capture of the public spaceThe crackdown begins: The NGO Trial and Case 173/2011Surviving repression in Sisi’s Egypt: The post-2013 orderConclusionNotesReferencesEgypt’s post-uprising foreign policyIntroductionForeign policy under the Muslim BrotherhoodCounterrevolutionary foreign policyConclusionsNoteReferencesIII EconomyIntroduction: A brief history of nation, state, and marketFraming of the discussionHistory: Top-down modernizationEconomic nationalism intensifyingThe 1970s: A shift to the rightRedefinition of state–economy relationsThe reemergence of an Egyptian bourgeoisieA not-so-successful case of integrationA revolution without ruptureConclusion and section structureReferencesState–business relations in neoliberal Egypt: The global political economy of subordinate integrationIntroductionNeoliberal reforms and crony capitalismRecovering the ‘global’ in the political economy of reformsState–business relations under conditions of subordinate integrationHollowing out of state powerTransformation and subordination in the business communityThe rise of the GulfConclusionNoteReferencesWhy Egypt’s trade policy failed to improve its external competitivenessIntroductionHistorical BackgroundOverview of Egypt’s trade Exports and imports by destinationEgypt’s exports and imports by productPotential explanationsIndustrial policy and domestic business environmentShallow trade agreementsLow tariffs but distorting nontariff measuresBehind the border constraintsLack of value chainsConclusionNotesReferencesEgypt’s foreign direct investment regime: Evolution and limitationsIntroductionLaunching the neoliberal eraThe second wave of investment liberalisation measures under Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Programme (ERSAP): 1990–2January 2011 revolution signals the failure of the neoliberal model and exposes Egypt to the implications of its BITsBITs ‘bite’: Egypt’s first realisation of the negative implications of BITsEgypt resisting the tides of changeBITs restricting Egypt’s regulatory space post-2011: Theory and practiceFair and equitable treatmentExpropriationOther substantive clauses and limitations by BITsArbitration costs and the regulatory chill effectMaintaining the status quo post-2011ConclusionNotesReferencesThe political economy of workers’ remittances in EgyptIntroductionOrganization of the chapterDemography, labor market, and developmentThe Egyptian labor forceDevelopment as a policy strategyEgyptian emigration at a glanceVolume and distribution of Egyptian labor migrationWork permits issued for Egyptians to work abroadMigration and RemittancesLevel and trends of remittancesPer capita remittancesOrigin of remittancesInformal and in-kind remittancesThe macrolevel impact of remittancesImpact of remittances on poverty alleviationImpact of labor emigration on the Egyptian labor marketSociocultural impact of migrationConclusionsNotesReferencesEncroachments: Land, power and predationIntroductionAgricultural land: privilege and dispossessionUrban land: revenge of the subalternMega-projects in the desertDisputed spacesConclusionNotesReferencesIV Law and human rightsIntroduction: Law, courts, and human rightsLaw in Egyptian statecraftThe ebb and flow of judicial powerEngaging the courtsRegime retrenchmentRuptureNotesReferencesJudges, elections, and constitutional politics after the 2011 RevolutionIntroductionLaw, courts, and the Egyptian revolutionParliamentary elections and the Muslim BrotherhoodMohammad Morsi and the permanent constitutionFrom crisis to catastropheConclusionNotesReferencesLawyers and politicsLawyering and counter-lawyering in EgyptIntroductionLawyers that matter and lawyering that politicizesThe ultimate paradox of 2011: Revolutionary but legalFrom the street to the courtroom: Are lawyers killing our radical politics?Everyday lawyering, everyday politicsLawyering to discipline and punishConclusionNotesReferencesLaw, exceptional courts and revolution in modern EgyptIntroductionA brief history of dualism and exception in EgyptShaping the dual state through the state of exceptionThe long autumn of the normative stateThe political economy of law and exceptionA revolution against the omnipresent stateCounter-revolution, counterterrorism and the state of indistinction: Mandating the securocratsJurisprudence: From the state of exception to the state of indistinctionFrom administrative detention to unlimited pre-trial detentionOrdinary judicial chambers with an implicit emergency mandateConclusionReferencesThe Egyptian human rights movement: Between political autonomy and accommodation of authoritarianismIntroductionContemporary echoes of the struggles of inceptionInstitutionalizing HRNGOsThe agenda of state and societyAgainst accommodating authoritarianismConclusionNotesReferencesV Natural and built environmentsIntroductionIntroduction: Visions and realities of the struggle for developmentNatural environment and biodiversityBuilt environment and urban developmentHeritage preservationForthcoming chaptersEmerging themesThe stresses of population growthOverlapping governanceCapital allocation and policy pressuresConclusionReferencesSustainable water resource management in EgyptIntroductionEgypt’s water resourcesWater management after the High Aswan DamNational Water Resource PlansAdapting to climate changeConclusionReferencesEgypt’s conflicting urbanism: Informality versus new desert developmentIntroductionCities in the desert History and scale of new desert citiesNew desert cities: Attracting the poor?The persistence of informalityTypes of informal areas in EgyptState relationship with informal areasConclusion: Beyond policyNotesReferencesLivability of Egyptian citiesIntroductionUrban developmentEnvironmentChallenges in Egypt’s urban areasEgypt’s new citiesAspects of failure in new citiesThe case of Al-Rehab CityThe future of Egypt’s citiesNotesReferencesThe cultural heritage of Egypt’s cities: Burden or resource?IntroductionPre-modern views of heritageA modern understanding of heritageThe Comité de Conservation: The first governmental entity charged with preserving Islamic heritageLegislation protecting Islamic heritageCollaborative efforts to identify heritage, develop a management policy and execute itGovernmental attempts to deal with heritage on an urban level at the turn of the 21st centuryOverlapping jurisdiction and contradictory lawsThe case of LuxorEgyptian-led non-governmental efforts for the management of heritageConclusionNotesReferencesVI Media and popular cultureIntroduction: Divergent trajectories of creativity and coercionRegional rivalry and conflictIssues of representation: Migrants, minors, and media irresponsibilityContradictions in law and practiceResourceful resistanceReferencesThe culture police: Manning the barricades of allowable art and cultureIntroductionMilitarism, sex, religion and politicsA culture for the revolution: Third worldism and the tutelary stateCultural Islamism and the syndication of cultureMubarak’s faux secularism and the ultimate act of silencingThe culture policeConclusionNoteReferencesMedia ownership in Egypt (2000–2020): Categories and configurationsIntroductionNew owners and their fluctuating relations with the regimeInvestment imperatives and media openings under MubarakA short-lived reshuffling of outlets and investors post-2011Media under Sisi: Stretching the meaning of “private”ConclusionReferencesTweeting the revolution: The evolution of social media use in Egypt’s turbulent timesIntroductionBlogging and YouTube: A timely symbiosisThe participatory culture and networked leadership of Facebook pagesTwitter, high hopes and multi-media interactionsWeb users squeezed by government and tech giantsConclusionReferencesRing-fenced religion?Egypt’s religious media between faith and politicsIntroductionReligion, media and national identityMuslim Brotherhood mediaSalafi mediaChristian mediaConclusionFundingReferencesCooperativism, revolution and the ‘digital turn’: Assessing recent Egyptian film collectivesIntroductionCollective action in the artsDeviation or continuation?Alternative film culturesAn inclusive, pluralist and decentralising spiritConclusionReferencesThe rise of indie music from the heart of Tahrir Square: Politics and popular music in EgyptIntroductionYoung listeners and digital mediaPopular songs and national projects: Historical backgroundPre-digital platforms: Monopolies and the mainstreamThe commercial era: The 1990s and 2000sReviving musical opposition post-2011Generational and topic divides between digital and other platformsConclusionReferences
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