II Universities reshaping teaching and learning through ICT use in different national contexts

This second part gives examples of case studies detailing the implementation of technology' to facilitate internationalisation via differing teaching modes in different institutions, in a range of geographic, cultural and educational settings. In

Chapter Seven, ‘Is digital distance education a strategy' for development? Exploring the digitization of distance education in Ghana’, Isaac Kofi Biney takes us to Ghana in Africa. In it he describes how distance learning targeted at adults is increasing in popularity in Ghana. Digitalised teaching and learning is being incorporated into both formal and informal adult learning programs and transforming the everyday experiences of educators and students alike. In turn enabling the digital literacy of adult learners is a means of developing human capital for development. This chapter explores how digitally enabled distance education could serve as a strategy' for development. Biney lays out the challenges faced in distance education, and discusses how the digitization of the distance education mode of learning could be strengthened in Ghana.

In Chapter Eight, ‘A pedagogical sequence for the development of foreign language students’ intercultural competence’, Fabrizio Fornara shows us a pedagogical sequence building on Byram’s framework of intercultural competence, the National Standards’ cultural framework, and the broader concepts of cultural and intercultural awareness. The chapter gives an exposition of an Instagram-based instructional unit, designed on this sequence, that foreign language instructors can use to increase students’ intercultural competence through the development of cultural and inter-cultural awareness of cultural products and practices, and philosophical perspectives. The chapter concludes with a case study of the experiences of two language students and demonstrates how the unit has helped them to develop intercultural competence.

In Chapter Nine, ‘Social media’s support for creativity', innovation, and networked connections in higher education institutions: a Thai perspective’, Thapanee Seecha-liao examines the Thai experience in relation to the development of core competencies in creativity' and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration, otherwise characterised as 21st century' skills. Thailand’s Ministry of Education has introduced a programme called Thailand Education 4.0 which aims at preparing students to be creative and innovative which, as Seechaliao notes, are competencies often considered to be somewhat challenging for many' Thai people. Thus, to align with the Thailand Education 4.0 initiative, many' curricula are redesigned to help Thai undergraduate students acquire the necessary' competencies. Social media use has been increasing rapidly and used to support class activities and to encourage students’ creative thinking and innovation. In this chapter, examples of how social media is integrated into Thailand’s higher education provision to promote creativity', innovation and network connections are given.

In Chapter Ten, ‘Trust, privacy, and self-disclosure on Facebook: institutional implications of social media use among American and Turkish students’, Yasin Yalçin, Canan Çolak and Vanessa Dennen note that we have witnessed a growing adoption of social networking sites as an environment for individuals to meet with others, share information and explore new content. Facebook stands as one of the most widely' adopted social networking sites in both developed and developing countries. Recent figures show that more than two-thirds of the adults in the US and more than half of the adults in Turkey' use Facebook regularly. However, do they' use it the same way? In order for users to benefit from social networking on Facebook, they have to engage in self-disclosure and reveal information about themselves. However, self-disclosure also means users’ revelation of information that might be private and confidential and raises issues such as trust and privacy concerns, which in turn have institutional concerns. Using Communications Privacy Management Theory as the theoretical framework in this study, the relationships between trust, privacy concerns, and tendency to self-disclose on Facebook among American and Turkish students are investigated. Data was collected using an online survey leading to findings that also have wider implications for international educational institutions

In Chapter Eleven, ‘“Dad, you are a YouTuber!”: a case for absence, silence and variance in online video lecturing’, Njordur Sigurjonsson gives a very' personal account of the dilemmas faced by lecturers when they' are asked to leave their comfort zone of traditional teaching methods to move towards blended and/or online learning. Critical management education has traditionally relied on classroom discussion, cooperative activities and peer learning techniques to encourage reflection and double-loop learning. Communication requires rich context since it involves questioning of both the student’s core beliefs and mainstream management theory’s underlying values and assumptions. In an online environment, the need for rich communication provides particular challenges for students and facilitators since they cannot rely on the subtle nuances of the classroom experience, and the lack of face-to-face interaction forces them to rethink the ways in which meaning is created and processed within the academic machinery. During classes on Cultural Management given to an international student body via a blended environment at Bifrost University' in Iceland, Sigurjonsson has had to face his prejudices against the digital development, where he and similarly sceptical colleagues have often questioned whether they' could be losing something valuable by' giving up on traditional classroom teaching or if they should embrace the very’ things that characterise online lecturing and make it different from the physical classroom.

In Chapter Twelve, ‘The international other in online learning: four stories from a graduate program’, Hajeen Choi, Omer Arslan, Dawn Adolfson and Bruce Screws shine a light on the challenges faced by international students when taking online courses. Whilst online education can provide great benefits and connect people it can also involve students having to navigate issues such as difficulties with the language of instruction and cultural issues without the comforting support of a tutor being physically present which can add to feelings of‘otherness’ and isolation. Taking four case studies the chapter focuses on four students undertaking online courses, two of whom are international students and two are American students. All of them are enrolled in online courses at the same university' in the United States of America.

In Chapter Thirteen, ‘Learning to teach and to be a teacher: Brazil’s ‘3rd Space Program’ and its implications for curriculum design’, Luciana Cristina Cardoso and Aline M. de M. Rodrigues Reali analyse the contributions of a hybrid teacher training space, the 3rd Space, for future professionals working in Elementary' Education. The 3rd space is an integrating environment of face-to-face and virtual experiences, theoretical and practical knowledge and university' interaction with schools, and one which involves teachers with diverse levels of teaching experience. Cardoso and de M. Rodrigues Reali analysed the processes in the construction of pedagogical practices in school; how theoretical and practical knowledge are integrated; and whether a hybrid space of teacher education supports the articulation of knowledge of diverse nature. They adopt a constructive-collaborative approach of research and intervention and the data they analysed consists of written narratives prepared by the case participants, one prospective teaching trainee and an experienced working teacher. Additionally, the design and establishment of the 3rd Space Program is discussed. These spaces provide opportunities for academic and practitioner knowledge to merge and can support carefully coordinated field experiences for university students.

In Chapter Fourteen, ‘Engaging the students’ brain: using documentaries to teach critical thinking’, Jacco van Uden and Wypkje van der Heide explore to what extent and under which circumstances the use of documentaries can enhance students’ critical thinking skills, focussing their research on a first year ‘Business Communication’ course for International Business students that uses digitalisation to teach critical thinking skills through the use of documentaries. International first year students were taken to the cinema, viewed documentaries at home and watched selected scenes in the class room setting. The documentaries covered a variety of subjects - from slavery in the chocolate industry to the workings of the brain -and were used to initiate discussions among the students. Moreover, students were invited to write a five-paragraph argumentative essay and test their critical thinking skills by persuading the reader of one of the statements based on a documentary'. The research presented in this chapter is based on the analysis of students’ (trial) essays, surveys, focus groups with students and interviews with lecturers.

Finally, in the Conclusion, Paul. G. Nixon, Vanessa P. Dennen and Rajash Rawal draw together experiences as described in the previous chapters and attempt to construct a narrative that facilitates an understanding both of the current state of practice and also outlines future directions and choices that need to be made surrounding higher education in general, and university teaching and learning in a digital landscape in particular. It will seek to draw together the experiences outlined in the chapters, contextualising how those changes are being implemented in different institutions, in differing cultural contexts. It will comment upon the opportunities created and the challenges faced by moving to a more international, technology' enabled form of educational provision, and give some insight into the future directions of internationalisation in higher education in an environment that has been, at the very least temporarily, changed by' Covid-19.

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