Treaties Explorer Partnership

In 2019, we also began a different kind of partnership with a mainstream institution looking to more effectively engage with Native American constituents. Our Treaties Project partnership with the U.S. National Archives Office of Innovation nationally expands our collaboration with Native scholars and builds a new approach to allowing people to explore the treaties between the U.S. and Native nations. In this project, we are synthesizing scholarship and creating a Treaties Explorer interface that people can use for research and casual exploration all the way from treaty boundaries on the map to the contextual information that currently requires a scholar to piece together and interpret. The Treaties Explorer web portal allows someone to start with a state or zip code or location on their phone, and see the treaties that relate to their area.22 Or someone may decide to look up the name of a tribe to see related treaties. Launching at the national Indigenous Pop X conference in 2019, the Treaties Explorer will also provide lesson plans ready for K-12 classroom use and video units on treaties, their historical context, and research you can do using the Treaties Explorer at DigiTreaties.org.

A focus on the U.S. allows us to do a deeper context dive, and beyond treaties involving land cessation, we start with the original copies of the 374 Ratified Indian Treaties since 1784, held by the U.S. National Archives, thanks to an anonymous donation to the National Archives Foundation that is providing conservation, imaging, and this rare partnership to connect people with the documents.

The Treaties Explorer project continues our practice of integral involvement of Native scholars and practitioners from planning through implementation. Since the Treaties Explorer web portal is built on the IDA and its interoperability principles, as for the IDA toolkit and its contents, the treaties and surrounding context information are available as reusable resources. We look forward to people benefiting from this work to augment other map, database, research, or exhibition projects.

Notes

  • 1 Our initial guiding user stories are available at http://blog.indigenousdigitalarchive.org/ post/2017/10/10/Technology-behind-the-IDA-toolkit-a-roundup-of-links-and-videos or https://is.gd/UserStories2016.
  • 2 Jorgensen, Miriam, Traci Morris, and Susan Feller. Digital Inclusion in Native Communities: The Role of Tribal Libraries. Oklahoma City: Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums, 2014.
  • 3 Phippen, J. Weston. “The Auction of Native American Artifacts - Next Week an Auction House in France Will Sell Hundreds of Native American Items, Some of Which are Considered Sacred.” The Atlantic (27 May 2016). https://www.theatlantic.com/ international/archive/2016/05/native-american-auction/484316/; Reuters, “Hopi Sacred Masks Auctioned in Paris Despite Protests.” June 11, 2015. https://www.reuters.com/ article/us-france-auction-masks/hopi-sacred-masks-auctioned-in-paris-despite-protests- idUSKBN0ORlDG20150611; Lozada, Lucas Iberico. “The Professor and the Pueblo: Was the Disclosure of Acoma Traditions Exploitation or Scholarship?” Santa Fe Reporter (26 January 2016). https://www.sfreporter.corn/news/coverstories/2016/01/26/the-professor- and-the-pueblo/.
  • 4 See https://0meka.dlcs-ida.0rg/s/ida/page/respect.
  • 5 Naruta-Moya, Anna. The Indigenous Digital Archive: Effective Access to and Collaboration with Mass Digitized Historic Documents. Washington, DC: Society of American Archivists, Research Forum, August 14, 2018.
  • 6 Yakel, Elizabeth. “Balancing Archival Authority with Encouraging Authentic Voices to Engage with Records.” In Kate Theimer (ed.). A Different Kind of Web: New Connections Between Archives and Our Users. Society of American Archivists, 2011; Krause, Magia and Elizabeth Yakel, "Interaction in Virtual Archives: The Polar Bear Expedition Digital Collections Next Generation Finding Aid.” The American Archivist 70, no. 2 (Fall/Winter) (September 2007): 282-314.
  • 7 Krause and Yakel. "Interaction in Virtual Archives.” 2007.
  • 8 Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan. "About the Polar Bear Expedition Digital Collections,” n.d. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/polaread/about.html.
  • 9 Yakel, "Balancing Archival Authority.” In Theimer, 2011.
  • 10 Brumfield, Ben and Mia Ridge. Wellcome Library Transcribing Recipes Final Report. London, UK: Wellcome Library, 2015, 17. http://www.slideshare.net/Wellcome/wellcome- library-transcribing-recipes-report.
  • 11 Ibid., 28.
  • 12 Rocke, Michael and Lukas Klic. “Revealing Renaissance Art: Mass Digitization of the Berenson Library Photo Archive,” Berenson Library, Harvard University, 2015. http://library. harvard.edu/revealing-renaissance-art-mass-digitization-berenson-library-photo-archive.
  • 13 Kelly, Elizabeth, “Processing Through Digitization: University Photographs at Loyola University New Orlean.” Archival Practice 1, no. 1 (2014). http://libjournal.uncg.edu/ap/ article/view/865/563.
  • 14 Miller, Larisa K., “All Text Considered: A Perspective on Mass Digitizing and Archival Processing.” The American Archivist 76, no. 2 (2013): 536-537.
  • 15 Zinckham and Springer, 2010: 107.
  • 16 Flanagan, Mary, Neil Fraistat and Andrea Wiggins. “Engaging the Public: Best Practices for Crowdsourcing Across the Disciplines,” A report of Dartmouth’s 2014 IMLS-funded National Forum in Crowdsourcing for Libraries and Archives (CCLA), 2015: 132. http:// crowdconsortium.org.
  • 17 Appleby, Mike. "IIIF Tagging and Discovery. Sharing Images of Global Culture.” National Gallery of Art (5 May 2015). http://bit.ly/lVtl2AV.
  • 18 Snydman, Stuart, Rob Sanderson and Tom Cramer. “The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF): A Community & Technology Approach for Web-Based Images.” Archiving 2015, Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology Conference, Los Angeles, CA, May 19-22, 2015, http://purl.stanford.edu/df650pk4327.
  • 19 Naruta-Moya, Anna, “The Indigenous Digital Archive: Effective Access to and Collaboration with Mass Digitized Historic Documents,” Digital Library Federation DLF 2017 Forum, Pittsburgh, PA, October 24, 2017.
  • 20 Ridge, Mia, "Digital Participation, Engagement and Crowdsourcing in Museums,” London Museums Group (15 August 2013). http://www.londonmuseumsgroup.org/2013/ 08/15/digital-participation-engagement-and-crowdsourcing-in-museums/.
  • 21 Simon, Nina. The Participatory Museum. Santa Cruz, California: Museum 2.0, 2010.
  • 22 Native-land.ca has made a great start in this kind of exploration, for treaties involving land cessation, over multiple continents.

References

Appleby, Mike. “IIIF Tagging and Discovery. Sharing Images of Global Culture.” National Gallery of Art, May 5, 2015, http://bit.ly/iVtl2AV.

Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan. “About the Polar Bear Expedition Digital Collections”, n.d. http://quod.lib.umich.edU/p/polaread/about.html.

Brumfield, Ben and Mia Ridge. “Wellcome Library Transcribing Recipes Final Report.” London, UK: Wellcome Library, September 2015, http://www.slideshare.net/Wellcome/ wellcome-library-transcribing-recipes-report.

Duff, Wendy M., et al. “The Development, Testing, and Evaluation of the Archival Metrics Toolkits.” The American Archivist 73.2 (2010): 569-599.

Flanagan, Mary, Neil Fraistat, and Andrea Wiggins. “Engaging the Public: Best Practices for Crowdsourcing Across the Disciplines.” A Report of Dartmouth's 2014 IMLS-funded National Forum in Crowdsourcing for Libraries and Archives (CCLA), 2015, http:// crowdconsortium.org.

Jorgensen, Miriam, Traci Morris, and Susan Feller. Digital Inclusion in Native Communities: The Role of Tribal Libraries. Oklahoma City: Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums, 2014.

Kelly, Elizabeth. “Processing Through Digitization: University Photographs at Loyola University New Orleans.” Archival Practice 1, no. 1, 2014, http://libjournal.uncg.edu/ap/ article/view/865/563.

Krause, Magia and Elizabeth Yakel. “Interaction in Virtual Archives: The Polar Bear Expedition Digital Collections Next Generation Finding Aid.” The American Archivist 70, no. 2 (Fall/Winter, 2007) pp. 282-314.

Lozada, Lucas Iberico. “The Professor and the Pueblo: Was the Disclosure of Acoma Traditions Exploitation or Scholarship?” Santa Fe Reporter January 26, 2016, https://www. sfreporter.com/news/coverstories/2016/01/26/the-professor-and-the-pueblo/.

Miller, Larisa K, “All Text Considered: A Perspective on Mass Digitizing and Archival Processing.” The American Archivist 76, no. 2 (2013): 536-537.

Naruta-Moya, Anna, “The Indigenous Digital Archive: Effective Access to and Collaboration with Mass Digitized Historic Documents,” Digital Library Federation DLF 2017 Forum, Pittsburgh, PA, October 24, 2017.

Naruta-Moya, Anna, “The Indigenous Digital Archive: Effective Access to and Collaboration with Mass Digitized Historic Documents.” Society of American Archivists, Research Forum, Washington, DC, August 14, 2018.

Phippen, J. Weston. “The Auction of Native American Artifacts - Next Week an Auction House in France Will Sell Hundreds of Native American Items, Some of Which Are Considered Sacred.” The Atlantic, May 27, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/ international/archive/2016/05/native-american-auction/484316/.

Reuters, “Hopi Sacred Masks Auctioned in Paris Despite Protests.” June 11, 2015, https:// www.reuters.com/article/us-france-auction-masks/hopi-sacred-masks-auctioned-in-paris- despite-protests-idUSKBNOORl DG20150611.

Reynolds, Julie. “Digital Participation, Engagement and Crowdsourcing in Museums.” London Museums Group. August 15, 2013, http://www.londonmuseumsgroup.org/2013/ 08/15/digital-participation-engagement-and-crowdsourcing-in-museums/.

Rocke, Michael, and Lukas Klic. “Revealing Renaissance Art: Mass Digitization of the Berenson Library Photo Archive.” Berenson Library, Harvard University. 2015, http://library.harvard, edu/revealing-renaissance-art-mass-digitization-berenson-library-photo-archive.

Simon, Nina. The Participatory Museum. Santa Cruz, CA: Museum 2.0, 2010.

Snydman, Stuart, Rob Sanderson and Tom Cramer. “The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF): A community 5c technology approach for web-based images.” Archiving 2015, Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology Conference, Los Angeles, CA, May 19-22, 2015, http://purl.stanford.edu/df650pk4327.

Whitelaw, Michael. Generous Interfaces for Digital Cultural Collections. Digital Humanities Quarterly 2015 9,no. 1, http://www.digitalhumanities.Org/dhq/vol/9/l/000205/000205.html.

Yakel, Elizabeth, “Balancing Archival Authority with Encouraging Authentic Voices to Engage with Records” in Theimer, Kate, (Ed.) A Different Kind of Web: New Connections between Archives and Our Users. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2011.

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