Contemporary Indigenous Mapping and GIS
Indigenous mapping and GIS efforts during the past two decades has blossomed. Four editions of the Tribal GIS book have been published by Esri with a number of 1-2 page case studies on individual tribal activities.42 For the plains, the most recent book includes discussions on community mapping at Fort Belknap, Fort Peck, and Northern Cheyenne reservations; mapping lead paint hazards in Standing Rock Reservation; spatial analysis of asthma in Fort Peck lands; GIS and emergency management services in the Chickasaw nation; and GIS education at Haskell Indian College.
An interactive map by Village Earth made allotments accessible to Pine Ridge Reservation residents. The Village Earth website notes that the Pine Ridge Land Information System “makes it possible for members of the Oglala Sioux tribe to: Search for individually allotted and Tribal owned trust lands using the Tract ID; View, print and share a web link for the boundaries of specific land tracts.”43
Overall, mapping of the Native American landscape, in the Great Plains, and elsewhere in North America, has been and continues to be dynamic. Indigenous people for the historic past have shown keen spatial knowledge of the landforms, rivers, lakes, mountains, sacred sites, hunting grounds, trade routes, the movement of wildlife, and so on, for much of their territories and adjacent areas. In their relations with other tribes, they were also aware of the contested territories involved. So there is little wonder that Euro-Americans relied heavily on American Indian input for their mapping efforts. And today, Native Americans continue to map and use GIS for their land and resource management, as well as planning for the future.
- 1 See Jolliet’s map of New France at http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/ 11574.html and Marquette’s map (Carte de la decouverte faite Pan 1673 dans PAmerique Septentrionale) at the Library of Congress (LoC). https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4042m. ct001908/.
- 2 Franquelin’s 1682 map (The Mississippi) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/ g4042m.ct000784/.
- 3 Franquelin’s 1685 map (Amerique septentrion.lle [i.e. septentrionale]: composee, corigee, et augmetee, sur les iournaux, memoires, et observations les plus justes qui en on'etes.tes en I'annee 1685 & 1686, par plusieurs particulies) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/ resource/g3300.ct000667/.
- 4 De L’Isle’s 1702 map (Carte de la riviere de Mississipi: sur les memoires de Mr. Le Sueur qui en a pris avec la boussole tons les tours et detours depuis la mer jusqu 'a la riviere St. Pierre, et a pris la hauteur du pole en plusieurs endroits) was drafted on five sheets (262x79 cm, sheets 57x83 cm), https://www.loc.gov/resourcc7g4042m.ct000665/.
- 5 De L’Isle’s 1718 map (Carte de la Louisiane et du corns du Mississippi...) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3701s.ct003028/.
- 6 Moll’s 1715 map (This map of North America, according to ye newest and most exact observations is most humbly dedicated by your Lordship’s most humble servant Herman Moll, geographer) and 1720 map (A new map of the north parts of America claimed by France under ye names of Louisiana, Mississipi |i.e. Mississippi], Canada, and New France with ye adjoining territories of England and Spain: to Thomas Bromsall, esq., this map of Louisiana, Mississipi [i.e. Mississippi] & c. is most humbly dedicated, H. Moll, geographer) are from the LoC at: https://wvvw.loc.gov/resource/g3300.ct007387/ and https://www.loc. gov/resource/g3300.ct000677/.
- 7 This sheet of two maps (Carte physique des terreins les plus eleves de la partie occidentale du Canada) by Ochagach and Buache is from the David Rumsey Map Collection (DRMC) at https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~ 1-306194~90076573:Carte- physique-des-terreins-les-plu?sort=Pub_List_No_InitialSort&cqvq=w4s:/who%2FBuache %25252C%2BPhilippe%25252C%2B 1 700-1 773;sort:Pub_List_No_ InitialSort;k:RUMSEY~8~18cmi=13&trs=45. The original map by Ochagach is from The University of North Carolina Chapel Hill at http://rla.unc.edu/Mapfiles/BSH3/BSH%20B %204044-84.HMC.3.jpg.
- 8 Mitchell’s 1755 map (A map of the British and French dominions in North America, with the roads, distances, limits, and extent of the settlements, humbly inscribed to the Right Honourable the Earl of Halifax, and the other Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners for Trade & Plantations, by their Lordships most obliged and very humble servant, Jon. Mitchell) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3300.np000009/.
- 9 Photographs of the east and west sides of De Lafora’s 1771 map (Mapa de la Frontera del Vireinato de Nueva Espatta nuevamente construido por el Ingeniero) are from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill at http://rla.unc.edu/Mapfiles/HMC5/Guerra%20LM%208a- la-a,5l.HMC.5a.jpg and http://rla.unc.edu/Mapfiles/HMC5/Guerra%20LM%208a-la-a,51. HMC.5b.jpg.
- 10 The Comanche map is from LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4322s.ct006428/ and the quote is from Viola, Herman J., “Smithsonian Expert Discusses Comanche Map.” Friends of the Geography and Map Division 12, no. 4 (2014): 3. Translation of the Spanish
Daniel G. Cole
legend includes: A. Chief Ysampampi; B. 95 Comanche towards the anterior; C. 5 dead Apaches; D. 35 prisoners of the former of both sexes; E. 16 horses captured; F. 1 Comanche dead as a result of wounds; G. 6 wounded Comanche; H. 8 horses also wounded.
- 11 The 1795 map by Soulard and Kohl (Idee topograpbique des hauts de Mississipi et du Missouri) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4125.ct000683/ and the 1796 map by Collot and Tardieu is from the DRMC at https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/ servlet/detail/RUMSEY—8—1—1007—100110:Map-of-the-Missouri-of-the-higher-.
- 12 A copy of this map (An Indian map of the Upper-Missouri, 1801) with accompanying notes is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4127m.ct000579/.
- 13 Thompson’s map (Bend of the Missouri River) and the quote are from the LoC at https:// www. ioc .go v/resource/g4127m.ct000151/.
- 14 King’s map (Lewis and Clark map, with annotations in brown ink by Meriwether Lewis, tracing showing the Mississippi, the Missouri for a short distance above Kansas, Lakes Michigan, Superior, and Winnipeg, and the country onwards to the Pacific) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4126s.ct000071/.
- 15 Steinke, Christopher. “'Here is my country’: Too Ne’s Map of Lewis and Clark in the Great Plains.” William and Mary Quarterly 71, no. 4 (2014): 589. Allegedly, Jefferson gave this map to the French.
- 16 A copy of this map (A map of part of the continent of North America: between the 35tb and 51st degrees of north latitude, and extending from 89 degrees of west longitude to the Pacific Ocean) with accompanying notes is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/ g3300.ct000586/. The second map associated with the expedition (A map of Lewis and Clark’s track, across the western portion of North America from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean: by order of the executive of the United States in 1804, 5 & 6) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4126s.ct000028/.
- 17 Long’s map (Country drained by the Mississippi: Western Section) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gOv/resource/g4042m.ct002090/. See David Bernstein’s discussion of this map in his book, How the West Was Drawn: Mapping, Indians, and the Construction of the Trans-Mississippi West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2018, 138-160.
- 18 G. Malcolm Lewis discusses this map on pp. 98-100 in “Indian Maps: Their Place in the History of Cartography.” Great Plains Quarterly (Spring 1984): 91-108. The map’s source is the Cartographic and Architectural Branch, Record Group 75, Map 931, National Archives, College Park, MD.
- 19 Catlin’s map (Outline Map of Indian Localities in 1833) is from the University of Cincinnati digital library at http://digital.libraries.uc.edu/luna/servlet/detail/ univcincin~25~25~53995~102958:Outline-Map-of-Indian-Localities-in.
- 20 Burr’s map (Texas) is from the DRMC at https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/ RUMSEY~8~l~214~20053:Texas,-By-David-H-Burr-?sort=Pub_List_No_InitialSort&;qvq= w4s:/who%2FBurr%25252C%2BDavid%2BH.%25252C%2Bl 803-1875;sort:Pub_List_ No_InitialSort;lc:RUMSEY~8~l&mi=278&trs=281.
- 21 Gallatin’s map (Map of the Indian Tribes of North America about 1600 A.D. along the Atlantic & about 1800 A.D. westwardly) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/ 2002622260. Featherstonhaugh’s map (A map of a portion of the Indian country lying east and west of the Mississippi River to the 46th degree of north latitude from personal observation made in the autumn of 1835 and recent authentic documents) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/96683128/. The third map (Map showing the lands assigned to Emigrant Indians west of Arkansas and Missouri) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/ item/99446197/.
- 22 G. Malcolm Lewis, op. cit. The map’s source is the Cartographic and Architectural Branch, Record Group 75, Map 821, National Archives, College Park, MD.
- 23 Nicollet’s map (Hydrographical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River from Astronomical and Barometrical Observations, Surveys, and Information) is from the LoC at https:// www.loc.gov/resource/g4042m.ct001419/. See the discussion of this map and related matters by Bernstein (2018: 172-193) concerning Nicollet and Fremont’s work.
- 24 Gregg’s map (A Map of the Indian Territory: Northern Texas and New Mexico, Showing the Great Western Prairies) is from the DRMC at https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/ servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~ 1-261609-5523519: A-map-of-the-Indian-territory—Nor? sort=Pub_List_No_InitialSort&qvq=w4s:/who%2FGregg%25252C%2BJosiah;sort:Pub_ List_No_InitialSort;lc:RUMSEY~8~l&;mi=0&;trs=10. Gregg, Joshua. Commerce of the Prairies or the Journal of a Santa Fe Trader during Eight Expeditions across The Great Western Prairies and Residence of nearly Nine Years in Northern Mexico. New York: Langley, 1844. The quote is from Bernstein, David. How the West Was Drawn: Mapping, Indians, and the Construction of the Trans-Mississippi West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2018, 9-10.
- 25 Preuss’ maps (Topographical map of the road from Missouri to Oregon, commencing at the mouth of the Kansas in the Missouri River and ending at the mouth of the Wallah- Wallah in the Columbia) are from LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/99446202/.
- 26 Cole, Daniel G. and Imre Sutton, “A Cartographic History of Indian-White Government Relations during the Past 400 Years.” American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 37, no. 1 (2013): 32-34. De Smet’s map (Map of the upper Great Plains and Rocky Mountains region) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/2005630226/.
- 27 The Assiniboine map is from the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) at http:// collections.si.edu/search/detail/ead_component:sova-naa-ms2600bl-refl9?q=map+of+the +north+side+of+teh+missouri+river&;record=2&hlterm=map%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bnorth %2Bside%2Bof%2Bteh%2Bmissouri%2Briver&inline=true. See also Warhus, Mark. Native American Maps and the History of Our Land. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
- 28 Warren’s map of 1858 (Map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean; ordered by Jeff’n Davis, Secretary of War to accompany the Reports of the Explorations for a Railroad Route) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/ 76695826/. The quote is from Bernstein, op. cit., 198.
- 29 The Army’s map (Indian Territory, with part of the adjoining state of Kansas, &c.) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/2011590003/. Warren’s 1867 map (Map of Nebraska and Dakota and portions of the states and territories bordering thereon) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/2006459247/. The General Land Office map (Map of the United States and Territories, Showing the extent of Public Surveys and other details) is from LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/83691753/, and the Colton map (Map showing the location of the Indian Tribes within the United States: Prepared to accompany the Manual of Missions) is from LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/98685156/. The quote is from Warhus, op. cit., 181.
- 30 Durage’s map (Dakota Territory) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/ 2007626713/. The quote is from Bernstein, op. cit., 198.
- 31 John Crazy Mule’s maps are housed at the Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, and the quote is from Lucchesi, Annita Hetoevehotohke’e. ‘“Indians Don’t Make Maps’: Indigenous Cartographic Traditions and Innovations.” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 42, no. 3 (2018): 20. A more in-depth discussion of Crazy Mule’s maps is found in Fredlund, Glen, Linea Sundstrom and Rebecca Armstrong, “Crazy Mule’s Maps of the Upper Missouri, 1877-1880.” Plains Anthropologist 41 (1996): 155.
- 32 The OIA’s 1883 map (Map showing Indian reservations with the limits of the United States: 1883) by Paul T. Brodie, which actually only covered about 3A of the country is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/2009579475/; the 1885 map (Map showing the location of the Indian reservations within the limits of the United States and territories) by Paul T. Brodie and Norris Peters is from the American Geographical Society Library Digital Map Collection at University of Wisconsin, Madison Library at https://collections.lib.uwm. edu/digital/collection/agdm/id/492/; and the 1888 map (Map showing the location of the Indian reservations within the limits of the United States and territories) by John H. Oberly is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/2009579476/.
- 33 The GLO’s 1887 map (Indian Territory: compiled from the official records of the records of the General Land Office and other sources under supervision of Geo. U. Mayo) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/98687105/, and the OIA’s 1889 map (Indian Territory: compiled under the direction of the Hon. John H. Oberly, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, by C. A. Maxwell) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/98687111/. The 1899 and 1902 maps (Map showing progress of allotment in Creek Nation) from the
Department of the Interior are from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/2007627492/ and https://www.loc.gov/item/2007627513/. Quote is from Lucchesi, op. cit., 2018.
- 34 Powell’s ethnographic map is from LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/2001620496/. The entire 67 map series of Royce’s Indian Land Sessions maps are from the LoC at https:// www.loc.gov/resource/g3701em.gct00002 and one may browse by date, Tribe, and state/ territory at https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwss-ilc.html.
- 35 Black Goose’s map is from the National Anthropological Archives at http://collections.si. edu/search/results.htm?q=%23E233091. For the full analysis of this map, see Meadows, William C. “'We want our land as it is’: Black Goose’s Map as an Example of Kiowa Political Cartography.” In D. G. Cole and I. Sutton (eds.). Mapping Native America: Cartographic Interactions between Indigenous Peoples, Government, and Academia; Volume III, Cartography and Indigenous Autonomy. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace, 2014, 35-67. Amos Bad Heart Bull’s work is comprehensively covered in Blish, Helen H. A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux, 50th Anniversary ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2017. Maps of the battle of the Little Big Horn are seen on pp. 215 and 256; battle of the Rosebud on p. 188; fights with the Crow on pp. 185-186, and 396; of the Black Hills region on pp. 287-288; and a fight with the Cheyenne on p. 391.
- 36 Bolich’s map of the proposed State of Sequoyah is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/ resource/g4021g.ct011168/. The map by Sam Attahvich (Indian Tribes, Reservations and Settlements in the United States) is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/ 2009579474/.
- 37 Kroeber’s foldout map is on p. 254 of his book, which is a PDF from the UC Berkeley Library at http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/anthpubs/ucb/text/ucp038-001-002.pdf. For more analysis of Kroeber’s and other academics’ work, see Sutton, Imre and Daniel Cole. “Introduction: Cartography and the Academy: Science and Innovative Efforts at Mapping Native America.” In D. G. Cole and I. Sutton (eds.). Mapping Native America: Cartographic Interactions between Indigenous Peoples, Government, and Academia; Volume II, Cartography and the Academy. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace, 2014, 14.
- 38 Sturtevant’s map is from the LoC at https://www.loc.gov/item/95682185/ and Goddard’s map is from Reddit.com at https://external-preview.redd.it/oODTOK44SJ7kw_dP-Xq_ e6vumVlwQ4dx5c4evWCftqE.jpg?auto=webp&s = 64a0292b202522e652b784f 72d87fd04be0da65e.
- 39 The BIA’s 2016 map is at https://www.bia.gov/sites/bia.gov/files/assets/public/webteam/ pdf/idcl—028635.pdf. Their 2018 map is at https://biamaps.doi.gov/bogs/staticmaps.html and the current interactive online map is at https://biamaps.doi.gov/indianlands/. Additionally, an interactive map of the Tribal Leaders directory in the U.S. at https://www. bia.gov/sites/bia.gov/libraries/maps/tld_map.html. The legal actions referred to include: 1) See Osage Nation v. Irby, 597F.3d 1117 (10th Cir. 2010) for where the reservation and disestablished status is discussed. The Supreme Court denied certiorari in 2011; and 2) See DeCoteau v. Dist. County Court for Tenth Judicial District, 420 U.S. 425, for how the reservation was reduced and the unalloted land was restored to the public domain. Other current BIA interactive web maps include the BIA’s Tribal Resilience Program Awards map, which provides access to BIA’s Tribal Resilience Award details and Tribal Resilience Resources for every tribe or tribal organization that has received an award. The map is searchable by location or name. The map includes regional boundaries for related federal agencies, such as USGS’ Climate Adaptation Science Centers, as reference at https:// biamaps.doi.gov/tribalresilience/. The BIA’s Operational Map provides users with a national perspective of the current weather conditions, watches, warnings, and advisories affecting BIA resources at https://biamaps.doi.gov/operational/.
- 40 The Census Bureau’s map is at https://www2.census.gov/geo/maps/special/AIANWall2010/ AIAN_US_2010.pdf; and the Indian Health Service’s interactive map is at https://www.ihs. gov/locations/.
- 41 The U.S. Forest Service’s interactive map is at https://usfs.maps.arcgis.com/apps/ webappviewer/index.html?id=fe31 If69cbld43558227d73bc34f3a32.
- 42 Sappington, N., with D. Gadsden, A. Taylor and C. Thomas (eds.). Tribal GIS: Suuporting Native American Policies with GIS. Redlands: Esri Press, 2008; Taylor, A., D. Gadsden, J. Kerski and H. Warren (eds.). Tribal GIS: Supporting Native American Decision Making.
Redlands: Esri Press, 2012; Taylor, A., with H. Guglielmo and C. Thomas (eds.). Tribal GIS: Supporting Native American Policies with GIS. Redlands: Esri Press, 2013; Taylor, A., D. Gadsden, J. Kerski and H. Guglielmo (eds.). Tribal GIS: Supporting Native American Decision Making. Redlands: Esri Press, 2017.
43 Village Earth’s website (http://www.lakotalands.net/) connects to the interactive map of Pine Ridge IR at https://villageearth.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapTools/index.html?appid= bdfebb55407447flb6d3705c3fe7e0bf.
Bernstein, David, How the West Was Drawn: Mapping, Indians, and the Construction of the Trans-Mississippi West, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2018.
Blish, Helen H. A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux, 50th Anniversary ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2017.
Cole, Daniel G., and Imre Sutton. “A Cartographic History of Indian-White Government Relations during the Past 400 Years,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 37,1 (2013): 5-77.
Fredlund, Glen, Linea Sundstrom, and Rebecca Armstrong. Crazy Mule’s Maps of the Upper Missouri, 1877-1880, Plains Anthropologist, 41, 155 (1996): 5-27.
Kroeber, A.L. Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1939.
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Lewis, G. Malcolm. “Maps, Mapmaking, and Map Use by Native North Americans,” in Woodward, D. and G. Malcolm Lewis, eds., History of Cartography, Volume 2, Book 3, Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998, pp. 51-182.
Lucchesi, Annita Hetoevehotohke. “Indians Don’t Make Maps”: Indigenous Cartographic Traditions and Innovations, American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 42, 3 (2018): 11-26.
Meadows, William C. ‘“We want our land as it is’: Black Goose’s Map as an Example of Kiowa Political Cartography” in Cole, D.G. and I. Sutton, eds., Mapping Native America: Cartographic Interactions between Indigenous Peoples, Government, and Academia; Volume III, Cartography and Indigenous Autonomy, Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. pp. 35-67, 2014.
Rice-Rollins, Julie A. “The Cartographic Heritage of the Lakota Sioux,” Cartographic Perspectives, 48 (2004): 39-56.
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Ronda, James P. Lewis and Clark among the Indians, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002
Sappington, N., with D. Gadsden, A. Taylor, and C. Thomas, eds. Tribal GIS: Supporting Native American Policies with GIS, Redlands: Esri Press, 2008.
Steinke, Christopher. ‘“Here is my country’: Too Ne’s Map of Lewis and Clark in the Great Plains”, William and Mary Quarterly, 71, 4 (2014): 589-610.
Sutton, Imre, and Daniel Cole. “Introduction: Cartography and the Academy: Science and Innovative Efforts at Mapping Native America” in Cole, D.G. and I. Sutton, eds., Mapping Native America: Cartographic Interactions between Indigenous Peoples, Government, and Academia; Volume II, Cartography and the Academy, Charleston, SC: CreateSpace, 2014, pp. 9-20.
Taylor, A., D. Gadsden, J. Kerski, and H. Warren, eds. Tribal GIS: Supporting Native American Decision Making, Redlands: Esri Press, 2012.
Taylor, A., with H. Guglielmo, and C. Thomas, eds. Tribal G1S: Supporting Native American Policies with G1S, Redlands: Esri Press, 2013.
Taylor, A., D. Gadsden, J. Kerski, and H. Guglielmo, eds. Tribal G1S: Supporting Native American Decision Making, Redlands: Esri Press, 2017.
Viola, Herman J. “Smithsonian Expert Discusses Comanche Map,” Friends of the Geography and Map Division, 12, 4 (2014): 3.
Warhus, Mark. Native American Maps and the History of Our Land, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.