Imperial Powers and Humanitarian Interventions: The Zanzibar Sultanate, Britain, and France in the I


I: The right of visit, the French flag, and the repression of the slave trade in ZanzibarThe repression of the slave trade: An impossible mission?Zanzibar dhows and the elusive Indian Ocean slave tradeA titanic task: the official abolitionist discourse confronted with the reality of the repressionThe paradoxes of British imperial hegemony at sea or David versus GoliathNotesThe French flag in the Indian Ocean: Myth or reality?Dhows under the French flag: evils under French colours?French dhows: vehicles of a new imperial order in the Indian OceanThe role played by the French flag in the Indian Ocean slave trade 1860-1900NotesDhows and the Indian Ocean slave trade: International law or imperial politics?The right of visit: humanitarianism or imperialism?The French flag and the right of visit: a problem of international lawFrench ‘engagés’ and British liberated slaves: the terrible paradoxes of freedom and labour in the age of abolition and empireNotesII: Empire and humanitarian action in Zanzibar: A troublesome relationshipA British Vice-Admiralty Court in Zanzibar: Sovereignty and imperial interferenceA Vice-Admiralty Court in Zanzibar: interference in the name of humanity?Anti-slavery and imperial strategies or the making of a British Sultan in ZanzibarThe unexpected consequences of anti-slaveryNotesThe Bartle Frere mission and the 1873 treaty: Humanitarian or imperial diplomacy?The British government: a reluctant abolitionist under the pressure of public opinionA diplomatic failure or a victory of gunboat diplomacy?Another step towards colonisation?NotesThe 1889 Zanzibar blockade: An international humanitarian intervention or an apogee of imperialism?Launching the Zanzibar blockade: humanitarian rhetoric and imperial politics‘Philanthropy or business’?Humanitarian intervention or colonial repression?NotesIII: Zanzibar’s contribution to international law and humanitarian operationsThe 1890 Brussels Conference: An apogee of imperial or humanitarian politic?The influence of the Zanzibar blockade over the Brussels ConferenceFreedom of the seas or freedom of all men?The international repression of the slave trade: a failure?NotesThe Hague international arbitration: The end of an old controversy?Imperial rivalry and anti-slavery in the Persian Gulf‘French protégés’ and French flags of convenience: the revival of an old controversyFlags of convenience: anti-slavery, international law, and imperial ruleNotesAnti-slave trade policies and the ‘Cause of Humanity’ or the shaping of a new humanitarian intervention theory in international lawAbolitionism, anti-slavery, and ‘interventions for humanity’: Zanzibar and beyondThe triumph of the laws and the rights humanity?Anti-slavery and ‘crime against humanity’ in the late nineteenth century: forerunners of twentieth century human rights?Notes