Table of Contents:
  • 1.1 The front panel of Franks Casket (eighth century). 16
  • 1.2 Frieze on the lid of the sarcophagus in Sainte-Marie-Madeleine
  • (crypt Saint-Maximin) in Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume,

Dép. Var, France (fourth quarter of the fourth century). 20

3.1 Medieval carving on the cross shaft in Burton-in-Kendal,

Cumbria, England - including the speculative identification

of the ‘lion’ behind Christ’s legs. 56

3.2 ‘Christ trampling the beasts’ on the cross slab MM 128 in Kirk

Andreas, Isle of Man. 57

3.3 Examples of possible artistic influences on the two scenes of

Kirk Andreas MM 128. 62

7.1 Queen’s Gate, Caernarfon, with eleventh-century castle bailey

and garden area to the fore (now a car park). 122

8.1 Jean Coene IV, A visual satire on the League of Cambrai,

Pierre Gringore, Abus du Monde. Pierpont Morgan Library, MS

M 42, fol. 49r. 142

8.2 Bremond Domat, Self-portrait, Généalogie de Madame Anne de

la Tour, princesse de l’Ecosse. KB 74 G 11, fol. 2r. 1518. 146

10.1 Edward Barlow: the city of Messina on the Island of Sicilia in

the Mediterranean Sea (NMM JOD 4, fol. 59). 181

10.2 Close-ups of the city Messina on the Strait of Messina, and

fleets of galleys fighting each other (NMM JOD 4, fol. 59). 182

10.3 Edward Barlow: the manner and situation of the city of

Naples in Italy (NMM JOD 4, fol. 60). 184

10.4 Edward Barlow: the manner and situation of Leghorn (Livorno) in Italy in the Mediterranean Sea (NMM JOD 4,

fol. 61 v). 186

10.5 Edward Barlow: the manner of the situation of the city of

Geniuia (Genoa) in Italy (NMM JOD 4, fol. 63). 188


  • 2.1 Map and list of ecclesiastical sites discussed.
  • 33
  • 208
  • 12.1 Prince Edward’s travel routes across Piedmont in 1764.


  • 2.1 Table of sites, burials, sculptures, and dates. 35
  • 5.1 Old Norse loanwords in Manx. 100


Linnea Bring Larsson is a PhD student at the Department of History, Stockholm University. She has previously worked for The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, as well as the National Library of Sweden. Her research interests include microhistory and history of knowledge in the early modern period. Her current thesis project concerns concept(s) of knowledge(s) in Swedish books of husbandry and agriculture in the 1720s. She primarily focuses on how the vastly different experiences, education, and personal views of the authors affected their use and circulation of agricultural knowledge.

Bryony Coombs is a Teaching Fellow at the University of Edinburgh, specialising in late-medieval art in Northern Europe. Her PhD thesis, ‘Distantia Jungit: Scots patronage of the visual arts in France, c. 1445—c. 1545’ (Edinburgh University), focussed on Franco-Scottish cultural connections in the late-medieval period. She has recently completed two projects; ‘Material Diplomacy: French Manuscripts and the Stuart Kings of Scotland’, funded by the British Academy Neil Ker Memorial Fund and published in the Scottish Historical Review (2019). The second concerned the military science ofjohn Stuart, Duke of Albany, and was published in the PSAS (2019). For this research, she was awarded the Murray Medal for History. Her current research concerns text and image relationships in French Renaissance manuscripts.

Tom Horne studied Ancient and Modem History at Oxford as an undergraduate. At the University of Glasgow, he received an MLitt. (with distinction) in Medieval Archaeology, before gaining a PhD there with research that focussed on Viking-Age Scandinavian economic networks and the expansion of market economies.

Vivienne Larminie is Assistant Editor, House of Commons 1640-1660 at the History of Parliament Trust, London, working especially on MPs and constituencies in southern England. Previously, she was a Research Editor at the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and taught for several universities. After a PhD at the University of Birmingham on English midlands gentry, her research interests expanded to include clergy and religious writers, immigrants, Huguenots, and Switzerland, particularly the francophone Pays de Vaud. In addition to many articles, she has published ‘Wealth, Kinship and Culture: the Seventeenth Century Newdigates of Arbury and their World' (1995) and edited ‘Huguenot Networks 1560-1780: the interactions and impact of a Protestant minority in Europe’ (2018).

Alistair Maeer is an Associate Professor of History and the History Education Coordinator at Texas Wesleyan University as well as an Associate Editor for the journal Terrae Incognitae. He was previously an Associate Professor of History at Southeastern Oklahoma State University after having studied at the Universities of Toronto and Texas at Arlington. He researches the intersection of nautical cartography and early modem British history and has published in various journals and books, such as a recent chapter in ‘The Routledge Companion to Marine and Maritime Worlds, 1400-1800’ (2020). Additionally, he is a contributor to The History of Cartography Project with the University of Chicago. His next book is titled ‘An Empire’s Worth of Curiosity: Edward Barlow’s English Maritime World, 1659-1705’.

Roderick McDonald is an independent scholar with research interests in Old Norse and Celtic languages and literatures. His PhD (Sydney) examined Old Norse loanwords in the Gaelic languages, and his MA (Iceland) was in Medieval Icelandic Studies. He published in Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie, EOLAS: The Journal for the American Society of Irish Medieval Studies, Journal of Australian Early Medieval Association, Robinson and Clements (eds) Neomedievalism in the Media: Essays on Film, Television and Electronic Games, and Merkelbach and Knight (eds), 'Margins, Monsters, Deviants: Alterities in Old Norse Literature and Culture’. He has held honorary positions with Swansea University and the University of Nottingham, and is currently establishing Emu Forge: an alternative art, craft, scholarship, activism, and performance collective.

Matteo Moro is a PhD candidate at the Istituzioni pubbliche, sociali e cultural! (linguaggi, diritto, storia) at the Universita degli Piemonte Orientale in Vercelli, Italy, an Honorary Fellow in Medieval History and Medieval and Early Modern Legal History, a member of UPO’s ‘DISCO’ Research Team, and a freelance archivist. He previously studied law at UPO (Department of Law and Political, Economic, and Social Sciences), and Archival Science, Palaeography, and Diplomatics at Turin State Archives. He is the author of several published and upcoming scholarly articles on the history and legal history of North-West Italy during the thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, focused on topics such as criminal law and justice, migrations and travels, sumptuary law, ins mercatorum, charity, and court ceremonials.

Sigmund Oehrl is a researcher and principal investigator of the project ‘Ancient Images 2.0’ at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University. He obtained his PhD from the University of Gottingen with a dissertation on Swedish rune stones. For his habilitation on Gotlandic picture stones (‘ Gotlands Bildsteine — Probleme und nene Wege Hirer Dokumentation, Lesung und Deutung, 2019), he was awarded the venia legendi for Archaeology and Old Norse Studies of Munich University. He has been a Privatdozent in Munich and is currently a guest lecturer at the University of Vienna. His main fields of interest are Late Iron Age and Viking iconography, runology, Old Norse religion, archaeology of hunting, legal history, human-animal relations, and digital archaeology.

Danica Ramsey-Brimberg researches interdisciplinary studies of burial and funerary practices and of relations between the clergy and the laity during the Viking Age. She obtained two master’s degrees, one in Medieval Archaeology' from the University of York and the other in Secondary Education in History' from Boston College, in addition to her undergraduate degree in History from Boston College, and recently obtained her PhD in History from the University of Liverpool. Her doctoral thesis contextualised and analysed furnished graves at or near ecclesiastical sites in the Irish Sea area from the ninth to the eleventh centuries.

Charles C. Rozier is Lecturer in Medieval European History' at Durham University. His research and teaching interests cover the political, cultural, and intellectual history' of Britain and Continental Europe during the period c.900-1250, with particular focus on exploring perceptions of the past and theories of history-writing. His work on these topics has produced several articles and book chapters, an edited volume ‘Orderic Vitalis: Life, Works and Interpretations’ (2016), and his recent monograph ‘Writing History in the Community of St Cuthbert, c. 700-1130: From Bede to Symeon of Durham’ (2020). He is an Assistant Editor of the Haskins Society Journal.

Keith Ruiter is an honorary' research fellow at the University' of Nottingham’s Centre for the Study' of the Viking Age and the University of the Highlands and Islands’ Institute for Northern Studies. He received his PhD from the Centre for Scandinavian Studies at the University of Aberdeen in 2018 and worked as an Assistant Professor at the University of Nottingham and was an invited Guest Researcher at Stockholm University’s Department of Archaeology' and Classical Studies and Uppsala University’s Department of History. His research focuses on issues of law, normativity, transgression, and punishment in the Viking Age and the early' medieval period and his recent publications make use of a range of transdisciplinary and comparative methodologies to explore these topics.

Dirk H. Steinforth is a Viking-Age archaeologist in Gottingen, Germany, where he obtained his PhD with a study of early Viking settlement in the Isle of Man, published in 2015 in the Etganzungsbande sum Reallexikon der Gemtanischen Altertumskunde. As an Independent Researcher, he is working on projects on various aspects of the Viking Age in the Irish Sea region, particularly on the archaeological and historical evidence for settlement processes and chronology. Other research fields include burial-customs, ethnogenesis, iconography, and Manx and North British medieval stone monuments and their contexts. He has written two monographs and several articles on these subjects and presented his work at international conferences throughout Europe. He also is a translator and lector of texts for scholarly publication.

Rachel Swallow is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries (London) and Honorary Fellow in the Department of Archaeology, Classics, and Egyptology at the University of Liverpool, where she is also a member of the pioneering UKRI Future Leader’s Fellow Project, ‘The Human Remains: Digital Library’ - and a Visiting Research Fellow in the Department of History and Archaeology, University of Chester. Her research explores interdisciplinary and cross-period research into British fortifications and their landscapes. With more than twenty years’ under- and post-graduate teaching experience, and in addition to being a member of various professional bodies, learned societies, and research networks, she has published extensively in international and national peer-reviewed journals and books.

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