Researching Africa peace journalism through borderlands: a theoretical and methodological exploration
This chapter argues that African peace journalism scholars are making significant progress in peace journalism research on the continent (Bwire 2019; Laker 2019; Mavveu 2019; Ogenga 2010, 2012, 2013, 2019a, 2019b, 2019c; Oluoch 2019; Youngblood 2016, 2019). This is evidenced by the level of attention that peace journalism is receiving in East and West Africa1 championed by dedicated peace journalism scholars. In East Africa, for example, there is growing research interest in how peace journalism is being imbibed to suit the local context (Ogenga 2019a; Youngblood 2019). So why East Africa? It is important to note that East Africa’s historicity is littered with various peace and security challenges in the context of a volatile socio-economic and political ecosystem ranging from terrorism and post-election violence in countries like Kenya, ethnicity in countries like pre-genocide Rwanda and political intolerance in countries like Uganda and, to some extent, Tanzania. There is also human trafficking and proliferation of small arms in the entire Eastern African Community borderlands among others presenting an ideal context for theoretical and methodological exploration of peace journalism.
The chapter argues that the East African Community, therefore, presents a perfect laboratory for finding closure regarding contentious debates about institutionalizing African peace journalism in the continent. Given this context, however, the chapter begins by, first and foremost, rationalizing traditional forms of communication for conflict resolution or African journalism as peace journalism. Journalism in Africa has often been accused of sensationalism, following the bandwagon or copy and paste approach that borrows from Western media due to the absence of African ideologies that can guide journalists working in Africa, especially those in conflict regions, on how to cover news in a manner that creates better home-grown narratives about such challenges for local community-driven solutions. It therefore follows that journalism for peace or peace journalism, at least as currently applied in Africa, is bound to face the same criticisms.
To address such criticisms, the chapter distinguishes peace journalism in Africa and African peace journalism because of the prevailing tendency to focus on the former at the expense of the latter in scholarship from an epistemological perspective. The two, however, may appear conflicting but are two sides of the same coin in African peacebuilding. This contention paves way for the common understanding that if there is no evidence about peace journalism’s African origins since it is essentially presumed to be Western, then it can be decolonized or atleast Africanized with caution to avoid maintaining the same power modalities. The latter would do justice to Africa’s quest to reclaim its philosophical past.
By Africanizing peace journalism, the chapter argues, an attempt is made to conceptualize peace journalism with African gnosis so that peace journalism inherits an almost ‘natural’ African character and become inherently African without necessarily linking it to Western trajectories. It also means that the chapter appreciates the fact that decolonizing peace journalism would be a much difficult yet compelling ambition given that those attempting to do so often face the risk of falling back in the same problem since they are trained to think from the same Euromodern epistemological structures. Nevertheless, this does not conceal the ability to see that African cultures are generally cultures that appreciate peaceful communal existence as a basic necessity for their own survival. In addition, pre-colonial Africans have been traditionally communicating and exchanging information orally and through written forms and therefore essentially practicing ‘journalism’ (Ogenga 2019b). Could peace journalism roots therefore be traced in ancient African conflict resolution mechanisms that relied on communica- tion/dialogue to resolve conflict in forums such as the famous Village Baraza in countries like Kenya to warrant the qualification of peace journalism in Africa as African peace journalism?
African conflict resolution mechanisms that relied on Barazas where village elders would meet to solve problems are still considered to be some of the key peacebuilding infrastructures today. In fact, the Chief who sometimes sits in or chairs the Village Baraza is a key National Government Administrative Officer (NGAO) in the Kenya’s security infrastructure for fighting crime and violence including violent extremism and terrorism. The chief also co-ordinates the Nyumba Kami, a community policing initiative and is the National Government Administrative Officer representing the presidency at the village level (National Crime Research Center 2018).
Traditionally, Africans lived in a hierarchical order where men, women and children understood their roles to maintain societal harmony and chiefs were somewhere on top of that hierarchy although not ultimately (NCRC 2018). In that hierarchal order, every subject had a moral obligation to respect the other, more so the elders, and therefore that hierarchy gave little room for conflict by virtue of the fact that decisions were made through consensus and consultations in a cultural system that every individual believed and subscribed to hegemon- ically giving more room for peace to thrive. Unity (Umoja), Utu (Humanity) and Collective responsibility or Communal belonging (Harambee) were the driving factors and the reasons behind such a cultural hegemony (Ogenga 2019a).
This chapter, therefore, looks at the Eastern African context, using the Regional Economic Community’s lens as an attempt to modernize Africa’s traditionalism in peacebuilding through technology and local journalism. This, the chapter argues, will help states and societies achieve unity of purpose as humans thereby reclaiming the forgotten peacebuilding space that made African societies cohesive, powerful and wealthy even as Africans attempt to achieve socio-economic and political unity of the entire continent through mechanisms such as Africa Union, Regional Economic Communities and Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AFCTA). The chapter further examines how the borderland and technological frontiers can enhance and fast-track Africa’s unity through its ability to enhance integration, citizen participation and engagement, and research opportunities therein, for African peace journalism as opposed to peace journalism in Africa for the next generation of peacebuilding on the continent.
In order to explore how the media in Africa has been covering events in the continent including borderland issues, it is important to locate the historical trajectory in which it has traversed. With colonial trajectories, the media in Africa has a very heavy Western influence and therefore is commercially structured to serve the interests of audiences, owners and advertisers (Kariithi 1994; Mbeke 2008; Ogenga 2010, 2019a). Historically, the Kenyan media simply acted as the mouthpiece of the government. Therefore, when we think of an African-centred media and how Africa is represented by the media we think of the works of other great African scholars who have contributed to this aging but still timely debate such as those of Allimadi (2002), Mudimbe (1988, 1994), Nyamnjoh (2010) and Ogenga (2019b). Mudimbe’s (1988, 1994) compelling theses, titled “The Invention of Africa” and “The Idea of Africa” respectively, have made significant contributions to the critique about the construction of otherness in Western discourses and the assumption that Western episteme about ideas of Africa and its people is the universal blueprint.
Mudimbe’s (1988) contribution “The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy and Order of Knowledge” hypothesizes the possibility of authentic African systems of knowledge that are not necessarily bound by the normative conventions of Western science defined through a certain episteme. Mudimbe brings about the idea of gnosis derived from the Greek word gnosko, which means seeking to know, inquiry, methods of knowing, investigations or acquaintance with someone. He distinguishes gnosis that is bound by African traditionalism and ways of reasoning, which are different and unique, from the Western episteme.
Mudimbe analyses the emerging trends concerned with the idea of reconstructing and reinventing narratives and experiences about Africa and “the idea of Africa” as opposed to the understanding rubber-stamped by colonialists and missionaries whose views have broadly framed Western episteme when representing the continent (see Mudimbe 1994). Ogenga (2019a) in his edited book titled “Peace Journalism in East Africa: A Manual for Media Practitioners” is cautious about what constitutes African philosophy in the context of journalism, peace journalism and African peace journalism by using Africa’s historicity to reincarnate great African values and normative traditions that would qualify as ‘good’ and ethical ways of communicating (journalism) all pointing out to human dignity. Ogenga (2019b) encourages all media practitioners to have respect for humanity, cultivate unity and collective responsibility for a more peaceful world.
Africa peace journalism and peace journalism in Africa
African peace journalism is peace journalism as given birth to or conceptualized in Africa using African gnosis, while peace journalism in Africa is peace journalism as practiced or imbibed in Africa. Ogenga’s (2019b) work, for example, should have been African peace journalism rather than peace journalism in Africa. So the difficult question is how to come up with authentic African systems of thought regarding peace journalism to qualify the former definition which apparently have to be done through a decolonial methodology that requires unlearning and questions of thinking about thinking itself (see Ndlovu Gatsheni 2018). Mudimbe (1988, 1994) “raises hopes for authentic African systems of thought [generally] which can be revealed through anthropology of knowledge” and can be, in this case, extended to communication and journalism as a field through carefully thought-out conceptualizations like African Peace Journalism (Masolo in Kresse 2005, 7). Mudimbe’s (1988, 1994) works are important because they analyse the representation of Africa in the Western discourse and by African scholars.
Scholars like Rodny-Gumede (2015,2018) underscore the idea of rethinking how journalism is conceptualized and theorized in Africa in the context of decolonization and the changing technological world characterized by new media technologies, that is, social media. This idea should be understood within the rationale that most post-colonial media organizations in Africa come from a historical trajectory that celebrated partisanship manifested either in racial, gender or class discrimination especially in countries like South Africa. Nevertheless, the kind of media transformation (presumably Africanized media) referred to by Gumede refuses to go beyond post-colonial Africa to inspect what may have been in order to retrace and critically appraise what this chapter calls African ‘Journalism’ and consequently Africa Peace Journalism for that matter. This is notwithstanding the fact that Rodny-Gumede (2018) makes a critical contribution to African peace journalism by highlighting Ubuntu as Africa’s journalistic ethics deserving attention.
Effectively, African Peace Journalism is journalism that uses African wisdom as opposed to conventional journalism defined through Western episteme or gnosis, and Euromodern views of the global South where negativity thrives and conflict is good news, making arguments about African peace journalism relatively new but of significant importance. The latter is true because they do not only go beyond the post-colonial manifestations of journalism in Africa but also argue for pre-colonial ‘journalistic’ values that had peace as a cognitive practice and a moral ingredient fused in the tradition of dialogue for conflict resolution through Village Baragas and therefore “Africa Peace Journalism”. Peace has been regarded as a human virtue and a gift from the African gods—Godly peace/ positive peace (Ogenga 2019a). In practical aspects of the application of Africa Peace Journalism in everyday journalism as a guiding principle for example, it is contended that “if it bleeds it should not lead” given the volatile and fragile nature of post-colonial African States.
This chapter, however, does not seek competition on which approach to journalism is best for Africa but rather appropriates the idea of Africanization of peace journalism since Africanization itself is often open to abuse in scholarship (Milton 2017). As Milton (2017) argues, the chapter seeks to look at Africology in relation to current global processes in order to theorize from a clearly articulated African position and thereby appreciates the kind of journalism in South Africa that promotes social change and geared towards resistance and accountability amidst fears of media control, a reality which, she argues, has brought about an appeal to universal values of freedom rather than Western values.
Africa peace journalism is inspired by the peace and security context and Africa’s position in the current global political economy characterized by a quest for Africa’s integration through AU and the attendant peace and security challenges. This underscores the significance of the borderland and therein borderland approaches to Africa peace journalism methodologies and the next generation for peacebuilding in Africa. Africa peace journalism appeals to the universality of humanity (Uhuntu) (see also Rodny-Gumede 2015; Thaddeus 2015), the necessity of living together harmoniously (Umoja) as experienced in some borderland space in Africa, and collective responsibility (Haramhee) given the volatile and fragile nature of post-colonial multi-cultural African States (Ogenga 2019b).
Ogenga’s (2019a) work is critical because it introduces African philosophy (Uhuntu/Ujamaa, Umoja, Haramhee) by great African leaders (such as Nelson Mandela, Jomo Kenyatta and Julius Nyerere) that imagined the future of a decolonial Africa as opposed to coloniality and colonialism in Africa. What narratives do media in African (geographically situated on the continent) construct when reporting about borderland peace and security issues and what intellectual positions do African scholars posit? The philosophy of Uhuntu, for example, is a universal value whether it is applied by peace journalists in the West or in Africa.
Media development in Africa
In conceptualizing what would be considered African journalism, it is critical that we also look at media development in Africa through the lens of history. The history of the media in Africa can be examined through three historical contexts: pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. It is also important to distinguish between media development in Anglophone and Francophone countries. In the pre-colonial context, we establish how African journalism was found in the oral tradition through poetry, music and storytelling. In the colonial context, we argue that the brand of journalism employed was characterized by liberalism in Anglophone Africa leading to the explosion of private media ownership while that of Francophone Africa was largely restricted leading to the development of state-owned media, giving little room for developing private media (Shaw 2009).
Therefore, the press in Anglophone Africa became more critical of government assuming the watchdog role while the press in Francophone Africa became little more than propagandistic media, which in essence echoed their oral traditional post-colonial past. In this context, we interrogate the widely held perception by media scholars that there is no journalism practice in Africa informed by African values to argue for the reserved applicability, harboured by media scholars, about the suitability of liberal press as applied in the African context.
Shaw (2009) argues that “the question as to whether there was any form of journalism in Africa before the colonial era may sound more journalistic than academic” but nevertheless a question worth pursuing if we are to get any closure about the true origins of journalism in Africa. Pre-colonial legacy characterized by oral tradition as mentioned earlier characterizes black African media (Bour- gault 1995). With the foregoing understanding, an argument can therefore be advanced that there was a form of‘journalism’ before the advent of colonialists in Africa, which included but not limited to peace journalism. Folk culture and communal storytelling (griots) musicians, poets and dancers played the role of modern day journalists where we see the concept of civil society groups as well as general and organized public spheres (Shaw 2009). The problem is that communication scholars only began looking critically at the media during colonialism overlooking pre-colonial orality or ‘journalism’ because that is when most systems of mass media were introduced but the truth is that even though government change, it does not directly mean older forms disappear (Bourgault 1995).
Therefore, the pre-colonial period is very important in this chapter because the African oral tradition that defined ‘journalism’ during this time resonates with the myth of the African ruler as a spiritual symbol of a people where social values were stressed through group orientation, continuity, harmony and balance creating a more conducive environment for peace to thrive (Bourgault 1995). The question that this often invokes is that an individual doesn’t belong until the question of “who you are” is given meaning by association of where one is from and born of whom (familial/ancestral ties) bringing to the foe African worldview of Ubuntu (a central philosophy in defining news values in African Peace Journalism). “Ubuntu is an ancient African ethic, a cultural mindset that tries to capture the essence of what it is to be human. A person is a person through other people” (Shaw 2009, 6). “I am human because I belong, I participate, I share” (Muriithi in Shaw 2009, 6). Bourgault in Shaw 2009, 6) argues that “it is this Ubuntu African worldview largely based on group solidarity and belonging that informs the oral discourse style of journalism unique to pre-colonial Africa”. In retrospect, news becomes news and more important because it was related to people (community) due to the conventions of associational journalism.
Africa peace journalism approach—researching borderland communities in Eastern Africa
In a bid to rethink the borderlands—particularly technological frontiers— as next generation spaces for peacebuilding in Africa, this chapter uses this emerging research area as a methodological object to argue for the development of critical literature on borderlands by African peace journalism scholars. Any African peace journalism scholar wishing to appraise the value of African peace journalism would want to conceive borderlands not only as an institutional space but also as a context (Aderese and Hoehne 2010) where-which borderland communities exploit locally available socio-cultural, economic and technological infrastructures for peacebuilding. Such an approach would be critical in attempts to redefine peacebuilding in the continent through policy interventions.
Africa peace journalism researchers would investigate how people, who live and are divided by State borders, have adjusted to the borderland situation and how the strategies they use to coexist peacefully can be adopted and translated to other institutional spaces of the State at a local level and interstate/regional levels (RECs) to fast-track Africa’s integration. The approach would uncover how borderlands problematic, on one hand, contribute to the marginalization of borderland communities and, at the same time, present peace and security challenges on the other hand, ranging from legal and illegal trade, inter-group conflict, proliferation of arms, human and drug trafficking, refugee and migration, oil and natural resources including spread of epidemics and how securitized State interventions complicate the borderland experience.
Further, such an approach would revisit the historicity of borderlands from colonial trajectories and therein authoritative boundaries and their implications in post-colonial States in East Africa in the context of stabilizing human habitation (Khadiagala 2010) within territorial spaces and how, eventually, technology through social media is creating an emerging frontier (technological borderland), in addition to traditional economic and socio-cultural frontiers, that is difficult to constrain in a “buffer Zone” (Branch and Mosley 2014). Technological frontiers are of importance to African peace journalism when looked at in the context of cyber-citizenship and citizen journalism. What discourses, for example, do people in the transnational cyberspace engage in and how can these discourses be guided through social media literacy educational training to imbibe African traditionalism driven by Ulu, Umoja and Haramhee?
To what extent does the internet, especially social media, give cybercitizens liberty/freedom to participate in public discourses both online and offline and subsequently, what are the inherent moral questions related to freedom of expression in the African context? These are all questions that can be addressed by deliberate social media literacy awareness programme and educational training such as those that are currently on-going at the Center for Media, Democracy, Peace and Security Rongo University? Therefore, technological frontiers present new kinds of peace and security challenges by the range of actors, interests and discourses it invites in borderland policy debates and at the same time, present interesting opportunities for redefining peacebuilding in Africa (Zeller 2013). Borderlands would be investigated as spaces where the nexus between security, development, crime, violence, conflict and politics is often at its most dynamic (Naish 2017). The research would be guided by the following scope.
38 Fredrick Ogenga Scope of the approach
The entry point of the approach could be premised on Kenya’s borders with neighbouring States as a framework, owing to Kenya’s strategic position as the gateway to East and Central Africa and therefore, how Kenya, her journalists and citizens (including cybercitizens) relate with neighbouring countries at the borderlands can potentially present peace and security challenges and opportunities of critical concern worth exploiting, relative to the main objective of the approach (conceptualizing African Peacebuilding through African peace journalism). Even though the approach would necessarily limit the scope of the problem because of the wide range of possible borderlands beyond East Africa—for example, borderlands in the Horn of Africa and Central Africa—which would be beyond the scope of such an approach, it is a necessary methodological rationale.
The research approach would identify a number of borderlands using convenient sampling selected using a borderland peace and security issue criterion. In this case for example, borderlands would be identified with the view of unravelling the emerging borderland discourses (Okumu 2010) both online and offline (what is online is often reflected offline and vice versa) in the context of Kenya’s domestic, regional interstate peace and security politics. Subsequently, in a bid to emphasize African approaches that consider regional dynamism, local agency, and people-centred peace and security border management, the research approach would identify and inspect the actors, new and emerging, their interests, the nature, scale and scope of their involvement in borderland peace and security issues. Conclusively, the approach would equally examine borderlands as institutional spaces for redefining peacebuilding, by first and foremost, identification of Eastern Africa borderlands and presumed borderland issues, specifying African peace journalism approaches applicable in the peace and security narrative of borderlands and a critical inspection of actors therein (state and non-state), local and international.
Redefining peacebuilding in Africa and African peacebuilding
It is difficult to define African peacebuilding; however, some African scholars and scholars of Africa agree that it is about creating resilience and sustaining peace.4 This meaning therefore defines the kind of literature to be reviewed in the approach, which would include literature on the meanings of peacebuilding for Africans and the diverging nature of Africa in international relations as Africa adapts peacebuilding. A good example would be found in literature in Kenya’s fight against al-Shabaab in Somalia and security situation in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Kenya and Somalia. This literature would be framed around critically appraising Africa’s efforts towards greater socio-cultural integration spearheaded through free trade (ACFTA) and new media technologies (economic and technological frontiers). It would further involve qualifying African identities both from desk literature and field study5 with the view that locally owned processes means success in peacebuilding.
Therefore, peacebuilding in Africa would be situated in the context of East Africa’s borderlands as enabling spaces for seeking the next generation of African-driven peacebuilding through media narratives with African lenses. The latter would involve media including social media literacy training and community peace formations such as peace (journalism) clubs. The literacy training would be guided by African journalistic news values critical in peacebuilding discussed earlier (Ulu, Utnqja and Haramhee) targeting cybercitizens, social media users and media practitioners.*’
Consequently, when conducting field research on the ground, local views are always very important because they help address misconceptions that are sometimes captured in scholarly literature, for example, the view that immigrants are trouble makers, job stealers and drug traffickers and that borderlands are crime and violence hot spots. Contrarily, this chapter argues there are many positive aspects of the border, which can be properly highlighted and critically appraised through emerging views from those on the ground. That is why the chapter argues for the methodological and theoretical importance of borderlands for African peace journalism scholars who seek to deconstruct their narratives for peacebuilding to fast-track Africa’s integration agenda.
Core methods in researching peace journalism through borderlands
- 1 Ethnography and observation (community media dialogues and training)
- 2 Key informant interview and Focus Group Discussion
- 3 Qualitative questionnaires
Ethnography is a research method that requires the researcher to immerse him or herself in the field and become part and parcel of the phenomena to be studied. Nothing provides a good understanding about the borderland than time well spent with local community members at the borderland. This will not only help the researcher to dispel the negative myths common in narratives of the border and experience what it means to live in the borderlands for local communities. The other advantage is that there are minimal media ethnographic studies in Africa, due to budgetary constraints and geographical, cultural and political challenges, making such a method refreshing.
Key informant interviews and focus group discussions
Borderland peace and security issues involve a number of stakeholders and numerous emotive issues. It would be useful that key among these stakeholders are purposively sampled for inclusion in the study. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions are in-depth qualitative methods that go beyond mere numbers to provide explanations and meanings presenting an opportunity for researchers to identify different kinds of actors in the borderlands and their perceptions and attitudes towards borderland security issues. This would include state and non-state actors both locally and internationally. Their views (narratives) can be corroborated by African peace journalism researchers through qualitative surveys highlighting concerns of local residents randomly targeted to establish how prevailing borderland discourses shape their attitudes and ultimately predominant negative media discourses about borderlands.
Qualitative questionnaires and issues of trust
African Peace journalism researchers can conduct qualitative surveys in an environment where respondents feel comfortable and can trust the researcher with sensitive information that they are sharing (see Sommers 2019). Baseline surveys would help establish the major trends and thematic variables that are worth exploring further regarding certain perception and attitudes at the border as reflected within state and non-state institutions especially around border security and control. They can also help in programme assessment/evaluation, redesign, validation and implementation.
Borderlands as emerging institutions for African peacebuilding
Field research would therefore help build literature on how borderlands have become potential institutional spaces for realising the next generation of peacebuilding in Africa through socio-cultural, economic and technological interactions for the realization of tolerance, knowledge creation, resilience and local ownership as Africa diverts. This may include but not limited to the following:
- • Borderlands as multiple spaces—economic, socio-cultural and technological frontiers that include cybercitizens and citizen journalism
- • Border security as a recurring theme in policy discussions
- • People-centred approach in border management
- • Borders as new resources for the state’s economic expansion
- • Borders as colonial boundaries or demarcation for authoritarian control
- • Borders as means of managing human settlement
- • Border differentiation—varied local context, nuances and agencies
- • Borders as critical spaces in Africa’s diversion and adaptation of peace
Critical look at actors in borderlands
The analysis would have to reveal old, new and emerging actors and would involve a critical analysis of their interest, scale and scope of involvement, management of local context role of regional and international organizations, and dichotomies between local and regional organizations in shaping the narrative of the borderland in public and media (including social media) discourse. It will also interrogate the fragmented nature of the African environment and how it reduces agency exploited by external actors at the expense of home-grown solution or community approaches for peacebuilding.
This chapter concludes that there is need to explore through research, the Eastern Africa borderland as an interesting theoretical and methodological object of study to argue for the role of African peace journalism in creating better narratives of the African borderland for peacebuilding, Africa’s integration, unity and therefore development. In the Eastern Africa borderlands, despite the negativity related to peace and security issues, there is potential for next frontier of peacebuilding in Africa reflected by many positive events anchored on communal belonging, respect for humanity, freedom of movement and collective responsibility explicated in the sharing of common natural resources; yet this is an untold narrative in the media and public discourse. If African journalism is to capture the latter narrative by voicing the concerns of communities in the borderland for peacebuilding and greater integration of East Africans and Africans in general, then that kind ofjournalism shall have qualified as African peace journalism and not peace journalism in Africa.
- 1 Adebayo, J. 2019. Reporting African Elections: Towards a Peace Journalism Approach. London & New York: Routledge.
- 2 ACFTA is considered the largest trade deal in the world with 53 out of 54 African States ratifying it.
- 3 The Center for Media, Democracy, Peace and Security, Rongo University is currently setting up a Social Media Literacy Incubation Laboratory partnering with government institutions such as the National Counterterrorism Center in the Office of the President and the National Crime Prevention Center in the Ministry of Interior and Co-ordination of National Government. The incubation lab will support youth innovation that includes but not limited to prototyping on how to use the social media to prevent and counter violent extremism and to address issues of crime and violence including borderland peace and security.
- 4 Funmi, O., Monde, M., Ogenga, F., Hendricks, C., Carvalho, G. K., Onwuka, O., Ntuli, N. Akilu, and Vines, A. 2019. The Next Generation of Peacebuilding in Africa Working Group. 10th—12th April 2019. Wilton Park, West Sussex, UK.
- 5 Field research can be conducted after review of literature to establish the gaps, in at least six borderlands (at least three field days per borderland), in the spirit of people-centred borderland peace and security management. This would be important because it would voice their concerns and uncover new views from local communities through instruments such as qualitative baseline surveys regarding the context of borderland, emerging issues and actors, both old, new and emerging, and the nature, scale and scope of their involvement in borderland peace and security issues. These issues would be corroborated with emerging issues from the desk research.
6 See Ogenga, F. 2019. African Peace Journalism: A Manual for Media Practitioners in East Africa. Kitere Hills: Centre for Media, Democracy, Peace and Security Rongo University.
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