Cyber security in the French Republic

Amber Darwish and Scott N. Romaniuk

Introduction: overview of national cyber security strategy'

The French Republic (hereafter simply “France”) has granted increasing national priority to responding to the growth in number, intensity and sophistication of information and communication technology (ICT or “cyber”)-based threats, risks and vulnerabilities which can affect its security and stability. Although initially lagging behind its main strategic partners acting in this area, cybersecurity is now an integral part of the country’s national defense and security posture, and the country has shown a consistent increase in its overall Internet penetration (92.3% as of 2019), which sits higher than the European Union (EU) average of 90.4% as of the same year (Internet World Stats, 2019). Its engagement on this issue broadly focuses on three pillars: governance, the economy and security.

With a highly connected population, France champions a vision of the cyberspace as a space of freedom, exchange and growth. It favors an open cyberspace that provides a sustainable source of prosperity and progress for French companies (including digital services, products and jobs) but which also asserts French democratic values and safeguards French citizens’ digital lives and personal data. To this end, French cyber strategies place a heavy emphasis on maintaining the smooth running of everyday life in France, as well as the general competitiveness, trustworthiness and growth of French businesses and industry (Ministere de la Defense, 2013). French national cyber strategies are thus naturally tied to the country’s national economic and industry policies, and a key component of the country’s “road map for industrial renewal” (Ministere du Redressement Productif, 2013).

Nevertheless, France recognizes that the mass-digitization of societies presents serious governance challenges including unfair competition and espionage, disruption, disinformation and propaganda, terrorism and criminality. Moreover, the French administration has expressed concern that cyber technologies are transforming the relationships between states, non-state actors (NSAs) and the private sector, particularly by enabling the rise in power of new private actors which can challenge the traditional sovereign authority of states. It is the view of France that digital connectivity and technological innovation is now an integral part of the contemporary power strategies and power relations that govern international affairs. Strengthening stability and security in cyberspace is thus a priority objective for France, albeit one that must be carefully balanced with ensuring the maintenance of the autonomy of the country’s actions and decisions.

Reflecting these considerations, France’s approach to building its national cyber security centers on the mobilization of diverse resources, not only by government but also across civil society. Domestically, it is building its cyber security based upon collaboration between the state, the private sector and civil society to reinforce the resilience of essential services and systems in France (France Diplomatie, n.d.a). Internationally, it is working to establish a more secure cyberspace through a highly active program of international political diplomacy. Overall, this cyber security posture rests on seven key principles:

  • 1 improving the protection of information systems within France;
  • 2 repelling attacks through the building of France’s defensive capabilities and resilience;
  • 3 the affirmation and exercise of digital sovereignty in France;
  • 4 a more effective criminal justice response to cybercrime;
  • 5 the promotion of a shared culture of information security;
  • 6 participation in the development of a secure and trusted digital Europe;
  • 7 international action for collective governance and control of cyberspace.

Concepts and definitions

It is important to note that France does not tend to employ the tenn “cyber” as it relates to “information security,” preferring instead the term “information systems security” (securite des systemes d’information) or, more frequently, “cyber security” (cybersecurite). It is of the view that the term “cyber security” is more precise in that “it designates the resistance of a system to events from cyberspace that could compromise the availability, integrity or confidentiality of the data stored, processed or transmitted and of the related services that these systems offer or make accessible.” The “cyberspace” is defined as “the communication space created by the worldwide interconnection of automated digital data processing equipment” (ANSSI, 2011).

France defines “cyber security” as:

The desired state of an information system in which it can resist events from cyberspace likely to compromise the availability, integrity or confidentiality of the data stored, processed or transmitted and of the related services that these systems offer or make accessible.

(Republic of France, 2011)

An “information system” is understood in a holistic sense to mean “an organised set of resources (hardware, software, personnel, data and procedures) used to process and circulate information” (ANSSI, 2011).

“Cyber defense” is defined as “the set of technical and non-technical measures allowing a state to defend in cyberspace information systems that it considers to be critical” (ANSSI, 2011). These include, but are not limited to, the networks of France’s Ministry of Defense (discussed further in subsequent text).

National governance structures

Law No. 2013-1168 of December 18, 2013 stipulates that “the Prime Minister shall set policy and coordinate government action in the field of cybersecurity and cyberdefense.” The Secretariat-General for National Defense and Security {Secretariat general de la defense et de la securite nationale, SGDSN) is the principle government agency responsible for assisting the Prime Minister in exercising responsibilities in this area. The SGDSN is supported in this regard by the National Agency for the Security of Information Systems (Agence nationale de la securite des systemes d'information, ANSSI), which is directly attached to the Head of the SGDSN, and operates under the authority of the Prime Minister. Currently under the direction of Guillaume Poupard, ANSSI was created in July 2009 pursuant to Decree No. 2009—834 of July 7, 2009, and is the national authority in the field of security and defense of French information systems, which monitors, detects and coordinates responses to cyberattacks, including through the protection of state infomration systems and critical infrastructures. This entity replaced France’s central management of the security of information systems and operates with a substantial budget of €100 million — an increase of some €20 million over the past six years. In addition to its funding, ANSSI’s staff complement has also seen an increase over that same period, rising from 350 personnel in 2014, to 500 by the end of 2015, and to 600 at the time of writing this chapter. While cyber security in general (including crisis management) is the responsibility of the Director General of ANSSI, the French Ministry of Defense (ministere des Armies) remains responsible for ensuring the protection of the networks underpinning its action and for integrating digital warfare into military operations. This represents a distinct separation between the country’s defensive and offensive capabilities and missions with ANSSI playing an expanding role in the development of France’s information systems security in direct and indirect ways (Gery & Delerue, 2018).

Beyond these principal institutions, a large number of additional French institutions play a role in France’s action and engagement on cyber issues. These include but are not limited to:

  • • The Ministry of Home Affairs {ministere de Vlnterieur, de I’Outre-mer et des Collectivites territoriales);
  • • Ministry of Foreign Affairs {ministere de Г Europe et des Affaires etrangeres);
  • • The Defense Procurement Agency {La direction generate de I’Armement);
  • • The External Intelligence Directorate {La Direction generate de la securite exterieure);
  • • The Defense information and communication systems agency {La direction des systemes d’information et de communication);
  • • The state agency responsible for information and communication systems {Direction interministmelle des systemes d’information et de communication de I’Etat);
  • • The state agency responsible for the modernization of public policies {Direction intermi- nisterielle pour la modernisation de l’action publique);
  • • The Internal Intelligence Directorate {Di Direction generate de la skurite interieure);
  • • The National Council on Economy, Industry, Energy' and Technology {le Conseil general de t’konomie, de I’industrie, de Venergie et des technologies).

Key national strategies and initiatives

Cyber security initially emerged as a policy priority in the French government’s third White Paper on Defence and National Security, released in June 2008 (Ministere de la Defense, 2013) and represented a climacteric in French cyber security and defense. The document mentions “cyber” no less than 40 times with specific reference to “cyber attack” and “cyber attacks” made 17 times, not including 13 references to “cyber-war” and “cyber-warfare.” It further illustrates efforts towards the development of an offensive cyber capability and the need to develop the ability reach the safe spots of threats or points of origin in order to neutralize their destructive capacities during, after, or possibly before a cyberattack can be launched and distribute its destructive effects. Reflecting on the evolving global strategic context, the document set out a comprehensive 15- year strategic plan involving a significant overhaul of France’s security and defense posture, taking France from a point of a

passive defensive strategy to an active defensive strategy in depth, combining intrinsic systems protection with permanent surveillance, rapid response and offensive action, calls for a strong governmental impetus and a change in mentalities.

(Ministere de la Defense, 2013: 50)

This included the introduction of a suite of targeted measures to enhance the country’s capabilities to guard against the risks and threats of cyberattacks and cyberterrorism. An “in- depth” cyber defense posture would aim to strengthen the protection of critical information systems, enable the permanent monitoring of critical networks and ensure the capacity and capability for rapid response in the case of cyberattacks. The maintenance of France’s strategic and political autonomy in the face of such events was a principle strategic objective.

With respect to the possibility of direct and indirect cyberattacks against France, the White Paper outline four key areas that recjuire special attention and investment over the “long-tenn” to ensure national security:

  • • Definition, by the Joint Staff of an overarching concept incorporating all actions involved in cyber-war;
  • • Development of specialized tools (networked digital weapons, technical and operations laboratory, etc.);
  • • Formulation of a body of doctrine for offensive cyber-war capabilities (planning, execution, evaluation of actions);
  • • Introduction of appropriate and regularly updated training for selected personnel, to be used flexibly in specialized units, overriding administrative considerations.

The establishment of ANSSI in 2009 was a crucial step in the implementation of this strategy. With continually expanding levels of technical and human resourcing, ANSSI has been instrumental to the design and enhancement of France’s cyber security posture, policies and initiatives as well as the publication of numerous scientific publications and best practice guidelines for French industry and businesses. A key ANSSI publication was the Cyberdefence and Cybersecurity Strategy (ANSSI, 2011). This paper laid out four strategic objectives for France: [1]

The French position was gradually refined and detailed over a series of further papers and reviews that include:

  • The 2013 White Paper on Defense and National Security (Ministere de la Defense, 2013);
  • The 2015 National Digital Security Strategy (Premier ministre, 2015);
  • • The 2017 Defense and National Security Strategic Review (Ministre de l’Europe et des Affaires etrangeres, 2017);
  • • The Strategic Review of Cyber Defense (Secretariat general de la Defense et de la Securite Nationale, 2018).

In each, the national cyber security objectives remained largely unchanged, namely: (1) ensure national digital sovereignty; (2) provide a strong response against cyber-malicious acts; (3) inform and engage the general public, business and industry; (4) turn digital security into a competitive asset for French companies; and (5) strengthen France’s voice internationally.

More recently, in February 2018, the Strategic Review of Cyber Defense (Secretariat general de la Defense et de la Securite Nationale, 2018) presented a reappraisal of France’s cyber strategy and associated military force structure. The paper recommended a restructure of France’s cyber posture to focus on the following seven points:

  • 1 Prioritize the protection of France’s information systems;
  • 2 Adopt an active stance of attack deterrence and coordinated response;
  • 3 Fully exercise France’s digital sovereignty;
  • 4 Provide an effective penal response to cybercrime;
  • 5 Promote a shared culture of information security;
  • 6 Help bring about a digital Europe that is safe and reliable; and
  • 7 Act internationally in favor of a collective and controlled governance of cyberspace.

The 2018 Review paved the way for a major shift, confirmed by French Minister of Defense Florence Parly in January 2019, from a defense doctrine of “active defense” to one of “offensive cyber capabilities.” It reflects a view that has been gradually solidifying within French strategic circles that “[ajrmies must now, systematically, look at cybernetic combat as a mode of action in its own right, the effects of which combine with each other in a global maneuver” (French Republic, 2019, n.p.) — a concern most notably expressed by the announcement in October 2018 that the French Ministry of Defense and French National Assembly would no longer rely on foreign digital companies for their Internet usage. It also reflects and reinforces France’s operational and organizational delineation between its defensive cyber operations (lutte informatique defensive) and its offensive cyber operations (lutte informatique offensive).

International law

As a key cyber power, France was designated by the UN Secretary-General to participate in work of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (UN GGE). In this capacity it was party to the GGE’s reports (UNGA, 2013, 2015), adopted by consensus, that went some way in detailing a normative framework for responsible behavior of states in cyberspace. This included agreement with the view that the principles and rules of international law - not limited to the United Nations (UN) Charter, international humanitarian law and international human rights law — are applicable to the use of ICTs by States, including in the context of international and non-international armed conflict (UNOA, 2015).

France has encouraged more detailed specification of the behavioral norms, rules and principles for the use of cyberspace (French Republic, 2019). This is particularly the case given that the GGE reports have remained rather general in their discussion and recommendations (in large part reflecting the inability of the Group to reach a consensus on the question of the precise application of international law to cyberspace and cyber operations). Importantly, however, France does not support the creation to this end of any new legally-binding international instruments “specifically for cyber security issues” (French Republic, 2019); this suggests it favors instead the development of a “soft law” approach where existing international norms prove insufficient.

In developing its own cyber security strategies France has forged a strong vision of the rights and obligations of States in this domain. In particular, its 2018 Strategic Review of Cyber Defense reveals much about its stance on the specific application of international law as it applies to the use of ICTs (Gery & Delerue, 2018). In some cases, its position on the interpretation and applicability of international law is not without controversy; it has, for example, expressed support for the legality of “pre-emptive self-defense” against cyberattacks (Gery & Delerue, 2018; Secretariat general de la Defense et de la Securite Nationale, 2018). The State’s contributions to the follow-up Group of Governmental Experts on Advancing Responsible State Behavior in Cyberspace in the Context of International Security will be especially critical to future normative development in these areas.

International governance

In November 2018, France launched a major independent initiative entitled the “Paris Call for Trust and Security in Cyberspace” (Appel de Paris or “Paris Call”). The maneuver represented an attempt for France to “take charge” of the future global governance of cyberspace. The Paris Call proposes a series of common principles to guide the behavior of both state and non-state actors with a view to ensuring “an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful cyberspace.” It points to the applicability of international law and human rights to the domain, and recalls a number of principles - such as responsible behavior of states, the state monopoly on legitimate violence and acknowledgement of the specific responsibilities of private stakeholders - that should inform the development of the governance framework, moving forward.

Importantly, the Paris Call promotes the achievement of trust and security in cyberspace as the shared responsibility of a wide range of actors. This incorporates the extension of international security responsibility in this domain to private actors, particularly as it relates to the design, integration, deployment and maintenance of their products, processes and digital services, throughout their life cycle and from one end of the supply chain to the other. The Paris Call proposes multi-stakeholder commitment and cooperative approach to cyber security, including measures to:

  • • increase prevention against and resilience to malicious online activity;
  • • protect the accessibility and integrity of the Internet;
  • • cooperate in order to prevent interference in electoral processes;
  • • work together to combat intellectual property violations via the Internet;
  • • prevent the proliferation of malicious online programs and techniques;
  • • improve the security of digital products and services as well as everybody’s “cyber hygiene”;
  • • curb online mercenary activities and offensive action by non-state actors;
  • • work together to strengthen the relevant international standards. The high-level political statement has since garnered the backing of a large number of states (including all European Union members) as well as a multitude of supporters spanning international and regional organizations, multinational companies (including Microsoft and Face- book), academic institutions, civil society organizations (CSOs) and private sector entities.

Partner institutions at home and abroad

France has developed a broad web of bilateral and multilateral cooperative partnerships to expand its impact and influence on cyber issues. Some of these partnerships and their initiatives are listed below.

European Union

France endorses the vision and concept of the EU Digital Single Market. The EU’s Digital Single Market strategy aims to open up digital opportunities for people and business and enhance Europe’s position as a world leader in the digital economy by providing for the free movement of persons, services and capital under conditions of a high level of consumer and personal data protection, irrespective of nationality or place of residence. France views this initiative as a key aspect of the EU’s collective capacity for initiative and action, which will benefit France in terms of technology, regulation (including defense, security and privacy), and cyber capacity. To supplement this endeavor, France continues to encourage broad operational cooperation between EU member states, particularly as it relates to the prevention of and response to cyberattacks.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

During the Warsaw Summit in June 2016, France spearheaded NATO’s adoption of a Cyber Defense Pledge that treats cyberspace as an areas of operations where NATO will operate and engage in active defense as it does in other land, sea and air theaters of security and conflict (France Diplomatic, n.d.b). In May 2018, France hosted the first ever Cyber Defense Pledge Conference at which the NATO Allies agreed to set up a Cyberspace Operations Centre as part of NATO’s strengthened Command Structure to facilitate the use of national cyber capabilities for its missions and operations.

Organisation for security and co-operation in Europe

France is playing an active role in the work of the OSCE to address the implications of cyber technologies both as an opportunity and a major vulnerability for states. This work focuses on the prevention of conflict arising from the use or misuse of cyber/ICT (preventative diplomacy). This includes through the adoption and implementation of 16 confidence-building measures (CBMs), which focus on enhancing interstate transparency and predictability of communication, preparedness and posturing in this area. France is facilitating the operationalization of these collective measures through its participation in capacity-building workshops, table-top exercises and the establishment of a crisis communication network.

United Nations

France has played a particularly active role in the UN in terms of debating and communicating the rules, standards and challenges in the cyber realm. France has been an active participant in the UN’s past groups of government experts (GGEs) on cyber security, with France having participated in exchanges to contribute its view on international cyberspace regulation with a focus on the principles in the Paris Call (France Diplomatic, n.d.b). In May 2019, France presented its position to the UN on global cyberspace issues:

  • • The actions undertaken by France to strengthen its cyber defense apparatus and its policy of transparency regarding its international and national strategy;
  • • The ways it intends to prevent crises by strengthening cooperation, building international capabilities and developing norms regulating actors’ behavior in cyberspace;
  • • The concepts and principles it advocates at the United Nations and the measures that would make it possible to bolster international security in cyberspace (France Diplomatic, n.d.b).

Group of seven (G7)

As a member of the G7, France endorsed the G7 Declaration on Responsible States’ Behavior in Cyberspace (the Lucca Declaration) established in Lucca, Italy on April 11, 2017. This includes a commitment to contribute to international cooperative action and the protection against dangers resulting from the malicious use of ICTs, and to encourage similar commitments from other states. The Lucca Declaration also reaffirmed in this context the view of the G7 that international law and the UN Charter are vital for stability and for maintaining peace and security not only within the 1CT context, but also offline, including as regards to the responses of states to wrongful or malicious acts conducted by other states. In this respect, the declaration reinforces and builds on the norms developed in the UN- GGE Reports. Another notable event occurred on April 6, 2019, when foreign ministers of the G7 countries gathered in Dinard, France, where they collectively launched a Cyber Norm Initiative that presented their “best practices” expectations regarding the cyber domain and state activity' within it. The initiative drew from previous experiences, highlighting lessoned learned from past non-binding norms concerning state practices and behavior (France Diplomatie, n.d.b). Under its 2019 G7 Presidency, France has focused the G7’s efforts on improving the resilience of the financial sector to cyber threats through crisis management exercises.

Wassenaar arrangement

In 2013, the French government was a principal negotiator for the addition of “intrusion software” and “[Internet Protocol] network communications surveillance systems” to the list of dual-use (civilian and military) technologies governed by the Wassenaar Arrangement. Intrusion software is defined as “software specially designed or modified to avoid detection by monitoring tools, or to defeat protective countermeasures” of a computer or network- capable device. The language of this amendment was subsequently modified in 2017 to address industry feedback in relation to potential unintended consequences of the trade control as initially worded for security vulnerability disclosure, collaborate malware analysis and cyber incident response that crosses national borders.

Other partnerships

France is a principal partner and financial sponsor of the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace (GCSC). The GCSC is a global platform that aims to promote mutual awareness, normative understanding and policy development among the various cyberspace stakeholders to develop proposals for norms and policies to enhance international security and stability, and to guide responsible state and non-state behavior in cyberspace. France is also a founding member of the Global Forum on Cyber Expertise (GFCE), a global platform for countries, international organizations and private companies to exchange best practices and expertise on the use of the cyber domain for communication, innovation and sustainable social development and economic growth (“cyber capacity”). France is also a founding supporter of the SPARTA consortium, a network of actors which aims to develop and implement top-tier collaborative research, training and innovative actions on cyber issues. SPARTA is one of the four EU projects to prepare the European Cybersecurity Competence Network.

Acting on its 2015 national cyber security strategy, which promotes “cooperation between member states of the European Union (EU) in a manner favorable to the emergence of a European digital strategic autonomy, a long-term guarantor of a cyberspace that is more secure and respectful of our values,” French activity in the cyber domain has benefited other countries. This is particularly the case as other look to France as a leader in this area, especially given the country’s recognition as a “key cyber power” within the UN Group of Government Experts (UN GGE) on Advancing Responsible State Behavior in Cyberspace in the Context of International Security (formerly: Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security). This recognition has played a role in France’s involvement in and contributions to other high- profile international organizations. For instance, France assisted in designing the cyber security policy of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) Working Party on Information Security and Privacy (WPISP) and the Group of Eight (G8), as it was known until 2014 (Renard, 2014: 12).

Cybercrime and cyber-terrorism

France views terrorist use of the Internet as a global issue that needs innovative, international solutions. It has committed to work with state and non-state actors to prevent the dissemination of terrorist content online and the use of the Internet by terrorists and violent extremists to radicalize, recruit, inspire or incite. It encourages the leveraging of technolog)' to identify and remove content of this nature, including the exploitation of artificial intelligence and machine learning to accelerate the identification of such content. It works in close partnership with the UN (including the Tech Against Terrorism initiative), the EU, the Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism and the Global Research Network on Terrorism and Technology.

France is a signatory of the 2001 Budapest Convention on Cybercrime. The French Ministry of Interior (L’Office central de lutte contre la criminalite Нее aux technologies de I ’information et de la communication or OCLCTIC, within the division of the national police responsible for work on organized crime) is the designated point of contact for this framework treaty.

Implications of cyber security policies and strategies

The development of France’s capacity and capabilities in relation to both leveraging and defending against cyber technologies has important implications for France both domestically and internationally. Domestically, France’s cyber security profits from a longstanding, highly centralized system of national governance, a system that has supported the rapid introduction of public and private measures for the protection of its critical information systems. These developments have enabled France to quickly secure its place as a leader in cyber security best practices. Internationally, however, its strong stance in this rapidly changing environment — particularly as it relates to the steadfast safeguarding and exercise of its “digital sovereignty” - has the potential to (or continue to) create divides at the international level. As it continues to pursue a controlled and collectively governed cyberspace, how France approaches such issues will thus have important ramifications not only for its domestic peace, prosperity and security, but also for international trade, development and stability.

Suggested reading

Baumard, P. (2017). Cybersecurity in France. Cham: Springer.

Grigsby, A. (2018, February 26). Three Takeaways from the French Cyber Defense Review. New York: CFR. cfr.org/blog/three-takeaways-ffench-cyber-defense-review; https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/02/ 26/cyberspace-and-geopolitics-assessing-global-cybersecurity-nonn-processes-at-crossroads-pub-81110 Ruhl, C., Hollis, D., Hoffman, W. & Maurer, T. (2020, February 26). Cyberspace and Geopolitics: Assessing Global Cybersecurity Norm Processes at a Crossroads. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

References

L’Agence nationale de la securite des systemes d’information (ANSSI). (2011). “Information Systems Defence and Security: France’s Strategy.” www.ssi.gouv.fr/uploads/IMG/pdf/2011-02-15_Infomia tion_system_defence_and_security_-_France_s_strategy.pdf France Diplomatic, (n.d.a). “Cybersecurity: Paris Call of 12 November 2018 for Trust and Security in Cyberspace.” www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign-policy/digital-diplomacy/france-and- cyber-security/article/cybersecurity-paris-call-of-12-november-2018-for-trust-and-security-in France Diplomatic, (n.d.b). “France and Cyber Security.” www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign- policy/digital-diplomacy/france-and-cyber-security/

French Republic. (2019, May). “France’s Response to Resolution 73/27 ‘Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security’ and Resolution 73/ 266 ‘Advancing Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace in the Context of International Security’.” www.un.org/disarmament/ict-security/

Gery, A. & Delerue, F. (2018). “The French Strategic Review of Cyber Defense.” Commentary of 3 May 2018. Italian Institute for International Political Studies, www.ispionline.it/it/pubblicazione/ french-strategic-review-cyber-defense-20376

Internet World Stats. (2019). “Internet Usage in the European Union.” www.intemetworldstats.com/ stats9.htm

Ministere de la Defense. (2013). “White Paper on Defence and National Security.” www.defense.gouv.

fr/english/dgris/defence-policy/white-paper-2013/white-paper-2013 Ministre de l’Europe et des Affaires etrangeres. (2017). “International Digital Strategy.” (In French only). Ministre de l’Europe et des Affaires etrangeres.

Ministcre du Redressement Productif. (2013). “The New Face ot Industry in France.” www.economie. gouv.fr/files/nouvelle_france_industrielle_english.pdf

Premier minister. (2015). “National Digital Security Strategy: Meeting the Security Challenges of the Digital World.” www.ssi.gouv.fr/en/actualite/the-french-national-digital-security-strategy-meeting- the-security-challenges-of-the-digital-world/

Renard, T. (2014, June). “The Rise of Cyber-Diplomacy: The EU, Its Strategic Partners and Cyber-Security.” European Strategic Partnerships Observatory, Working Paper No. 7. files.ethz.ch /isn/181326/The%20rise%20of%20cyber-diplomacy_%20the%20EU,%20its%20strategic%20partners %20and%20cyber-security.pdf

Republic of France. (2011). “Information Systems Defence and Security: France’s Security.” www.ssi. gouv.fr/uploads/IMG/pdf/2011-02-15_Information_system_defence_and_security_-_France_s_strat egy.pdf

Secretariat general de la Defense et de la Securite Nationale. (2018). “French Strategic Review of Cyber Defence.” www.sgdsn.gouv.fr/uploads/2018/03/revue-cyber-resume-in-english.pdf

UNGA. (2013, June 24). “Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (A/68/98*).” https://undocs.org/A/68/98

UNGA. (2015, July 22). “Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (A/70/174).” https://undocs.org/А/70/174

  • [1] Be a global cyber defense power, taking its place in the inner circle of major nations inthe field whilst preserving its autonomy; 2 Safeguard France’s freedom of decision-making by protecting sovereign information; 3 Bolster the cyber security of national critical infrastructures; 4 Safeguard security in cyberspace.
 
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