The Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization

PREFACEACKNOWLEDGMENTSINTRODUCTION Mapping dehumanization studiesRemarks on the history of the fieldRealizations, levels, forms, and ontological contrastsTargets, valence, and emotionsCauses, functions, and consequences of dehumanization, and prospects for rehumanizationTheoretical complexitiesConnections to related areas in the humanities and social sciencesFinal remarks on focus, limitations, and readership of the individual contributions to the handbookOverview of chapter contentReferencesI Oscillating boundaries, dimensions, and hierarchies of humanity in historical contextsDEHUMANIZATION BEFORE THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGEIntroductionFour varieties of dehumanizationThe first “savages”: The Homeric Cyclopes“Natural slavery” and the extermination of defeated enemies in Greek antiquityThe dehumanization of the vanquished in the Roman EmpireMonotheism and Holy War: A new kind of dehumanizationThe dehumanization of womenConcluding observationsReferences“HUMANITY” AND ITS LIMITS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPEAN THOUGHT1IntroductionThe “Columbian moment” and the boundaries of the humanThe impact of the new science, skepticism, and the ReformationModern natural law: State(s) of nature and arguments against dehumanizationConclusion and outlookReferencesENLIGHTENMENT HUMANIZATION AND DEHUMANIZATION, AND THE ORANGUTANQuestioning humanity‘The Orang-Outang imitates a Man’When gender matters‘Ludicrous as the opinion may seem’ConclusionReferencesDEHUMANIZING THE EXOTIC IN LIVING HUMAN EXHIBITIONSIntroduction: Under the mask of progress and modernityThe freak shows and ethnic exhibitions tradeUnderstanding the magnitude of a historical phenomenonPower, spectacle, and business in the exhibition of human diversityExhibitionary strategiesA representation of temporal distanceSpectacle and science: Ambiguity and self-legitimizationPost-production and rehumanization of ethnic othernessThe many faces of living ethnic exhibitionsReferencesDEHUMANIZING STRATEGIES IN NAZI IDEOLOGY AND THEIR ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONTEXTIntroductionThe significance and character of Nazi ideologyBiological racism: Darré’s animalization of humanityMetaphysical racism: Rosenberg’s image of the “Jewish Parasite”The intellectual context: Anthropology in early 20,h-century GermanyConclusionReferencesTHEORIZING THE INHUMANITY OF HUMAN NATURE, 1955-1985IntroductionThe stakes of human natureZoomorphism and the critique of Cold War aggressionCritiques of sociobiology as biological determinismDehumanization, revisitedReferencesII Further special contexts of dehumanizationTHE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF DEHUMANIZATIONIntroductionA historical overviewThe psychology of dehumanization before 2000Psychological theories of dehumanization in the 21st centuryConceptualization and measurement of dehumanizationFields of applicationCauses, correlates, and consequences of dehumanizationConclusionReferencesDEHUMANIZATION AND THE LOSS OF MORAL STANDINGIntroductionMoral standingTwo sources of moral standingThe loss of moral standing in dehumanizationConclusionNotesReferencesDEHUMANIZATION AND THE QUESTION OF ANIMALSWhat do animals have to do with dehumanization?The abjection of human beings through animalizing ideologiesTheoretical concerns about “dehumanization” as a critical categoryOn not saying: “We are not animals”An excursus on animals and ethicsResisting dehumanization via animalizationReferencesDEHUMANIZATION, DISABILITY, AND EUGENICSIntroductionEugenics: Heart and historyEugenic traits and reproductive valueThe epistemic importance of standpointDisability, reproductive technologies, and newgenic traitsHow marked human variation dehumanizesUnderstanding the persistence of eugenic dehumanizationConcluding larger questions about dehumanizationReferencesDEHUMANIZATION AND HUMAN RIGHTSIntroductionWhat is dehumanization? What are human rights?Dehumanization through the lens of human rightsHuman rights through a dehumanization lensReferencesDEHUMANIZATION BY LAW1IntroductionLegal dehumanization and the values of the lawThe juridical person violatedCasesEpilogue: Rehumanization by lawReferencesDEHUMANIZATION IN LITERATURE AND THE FIGURE OF THE PERPETRATOR1IntroductionLiterature, empathy, and human rightsPerpetrators of dehumanization or criminals?Readerly complicities: Dehumanizing representations, representations of dehumanizationDehumanization and literariness: The difficulty of difficult empathyConclusionReferencesIII The complex facets of dehumanizationDEHUMANIZATION AND SOCIAL DEATH AS FUNDAMENTALS OF RACISMIntroduction‘Mindless bodies’ as ‘animated tools’‘Religious heresy’ by ‘impurity of blood’‘Perfectibility’ or ‘extinction’ReferencesHOW STATUS AND INTERDEPENDENCE EXPLAIN DIFFERENT FORMS OF DEHUMANIZATIONIntroductionUnambivalent stereotypes: Ingroups versus fully dehumanized outgroupsDehumanizing ambivalent stereotypes: Envy and pityHow do we know? Methods for studying warmth and competenceWhat psychology doesn’t know yet: A note on rival theoriesHow vertically contributes to dehumanization: Smart people, not-so-smart peopleHow horizontality contributes to dehumanization: Good people, bad peopleCombining the horizontal and the vertical creates a path to rehumanizationImplications for dehumanization, open questions, future research, interventionsReferencesEXPLORING METADEHUMANIZATION AND SELF-DEHUMANIZATION FROM A TARGET PERSPECTIVEIntroductionTargeting the target’s perspectiveMetadehumanizationSelf-dehumanizationThe future of metadehumanization and self-dehumanizationConclusionReferencesTHE DEHUMANIZATION AND REHUMANIZATION OF REFUGEESIntroductionThe refugee situation worldwideMedia portrayals of refugeesDehumanizationThe role of the media in the dehumanization of refugeesConsequences of refugee dehumanizationThe rehumanization of refugeesImplications and conclusionReferencesMOTIVATIONAL AND COGNITIVE UNDERPINNINGS OF FEAR OF SOCIAL ROBOTS THAT BECOME “TOO HUMAN FOR US”IntroductionLiving with social robots: Hopes and fearsMotivational underpinnings: The threat to human distinctiveness accounts for the fear of social robotsCognitive underpinnings of our fear of androids: The uncanny valleyConclusionReferencesIV Conceptual and epistemological questions regarding dehumanizationOBJECTIFICATION, INFERIORIZATION, AND PROJECTION IN PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON DEHUMANIZATIONIntroductionThingly objectification and human subjectivityFrantz Fanón on dehumanization, inferiorization, and epidermalizationSimone de Beauvoir on woman’s othernessEmotive projectionsConclusionReferencesWHY DEHUMANIZATION IS DISTINCT FROM OBJECTIFICATIONIntroductionObjectificationReductive objectification and dehumanizationNon-reductive objectification and dehumanizationThe paradox of dehumanizationFinal remarksNotesReferencesON HATRED AND DEHUMANIZATION1IntroductionDehumanizing hatredDehumanization without hatredHatred without dehumanizationVirtuous hatred: An impossibility?ConclusionReferencesDEHUMANIZATION, THE PROBLEM OF HUMANITY AND THE PROBLEM OF MONSTROSITYIntroductionEssentialism and humannessThe function of dehumanizationThe problem of humanityThe problem of monstrosityExampleSkepticismEpistemic deferenceSolving the problem of monstrosityFuture challengesReferencesPSYCHOLOGICAL ESSENTIALISM AND DEHUMANIZATIONIntroductionExamples of connecting psychological essentialism and dehumanizationAn error theory of essentializing the human category and the diversity of elements of essentialismIs reference to a hidden and inherent essence necessary?Is entitativity necessary?Conclusion and outlookReferencesCOULD DEHUMANIZATION BE PERCEPTUAL?IntroductionThree assumptionsThe mind perception thesisThe perception of animacyVisual adaptationCognitive penetration and configurai processingConcluding remarksReferences
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