# Energetic Particles in Tokamak Plasmas

Magnetic Nuclear Fusion in TokamaksINTRODUCTIONSELF-SUSTAINED D-T FUSION REACTIONS AND TRIPLE-PRODUCT CRITERION FOR IGNITED PLASMA IN MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT DEVICESIncreasing Energy Confinement Time tEIncreasing Magnetic Field ВIncreasing BetaTHE ROLE OF ENERGETIC IONS IN MAGNETIC FUSIONREFERENCESCharged Particle Orbits in Magnetised PlasmaLARMOR ORBITS IN HOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELDDRIFT MOTION OF LARMOR ORBITS IN THE PRESENCE OF EXTERNAL FORCES AND INHOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELDDrift Motion in a Constant Electric FieldDrift Motion in Inhomogeneous Static Magnetic FieldDrift Motion in Static Magnetic Field with CurvatureDrift Motion in Time-Dependent Electric FieldDRIFT MOTION OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN TOKAMAKTrapped and Passing Particle OrbitsExamples of Fat and Non-Standard Orbits of Highly Energetic Ions in JETEnergetic Ions in Present-Day TokamaksHEATING PLASMA WITH ENERGETIC IONSNeutral Beam Injection (NBI)Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH)Alpha Particle Heating and Burning PlasmasDIAGNOSTICS OF CONFINED ENERGETIC IONSMeasurements of Energetic Ion Distribution with a Neutral Particle AnalyserGamma Ray Diagnostics of Energetic IonsInformation on Highly Energetic D Ions in the Neutron Emission SpectraDIAGNOSTICS OF LOST ENERGETIC IONSREFERENCESEquilibrium of Tokamak PlasmaGOVERNING IDEAL MHD EQUATIONS FOR TOKAMAK PLASMASGRAD-SHAFRANOV EQUATION FOR TOKAMAK PLASMA EQUILIBRIUMSOME EXTRAORDINARY TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIAAdvanced Tokamak Scenario with Hollow Current ProfilesSpherical Tokamaks with High-βREFERENCESMHD Waves in Magnetically Confined PlasmasTHE LINEARIZATION PROCEDURE AND MAIN TYPES OF MHD WAVESSHEAR ALFVEN WAVES IN INHOMOGENEOUS PLASMA AND THE WAVE CONTINUUM DAMPINGDISCOVERY OF GLOBAL ALFVEN EIGENMODES IN CYLINDRICAL PLASMASKINETIC ALFVEN WAVES VERSUS SHEAR ALFVEN WAVESREFERENCES Toroidicity-Induced Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAEs)ANALYTIC THEORY OF TAEKINETIC АLFVEМ WAVES IN THE VICINITY OF TAE-GAP: QUALITATIVE PICTURE OF RADIATIVE DAMPING OF TAE AND DISCRETE SPECTRUM OF KINETIC TAETAE INTERACTION WITH ENERGETIC PARTICLES AND THERMAL PLASMA, TAE STABILITYPower Transfer from Energetic Particles to TAETAE Damping due to Thermal IonsTAE Damping due to Thermal ElectronsContinuum Damping of TAEREFERENCESExperimental Studies of Alfvén EigenmodesPROBING STABLE ALFVEN EIGENMODES WITH EXTERNAL TAE ANTENNAENERGETIC PARTICLE-DRIVEN AE WITH FREQUENCIES LOCKED TO PLASMA EQUILIBRIUMFREQUENCY-SWEEPING ENERGETIC PARTICLE-DRIVEN AEREFERENCESNon-linear Evolution of Coupled Energetic Particle Populations and Energetic Particle-Driven ModesGENERIC BERK-BREIZMAN THEORY ON THE NEAR-THRESHOLD WAVE EXCITATION BY ENERGETIC PARTICLESNon-linear Scenarios of the Mode Evolution Described by (8.16)Non-linear Scenarios Observed Experimentally for TAEs Excited with Energetic Tail Ions Resulted from the RF-DiffusionSPONTANEOUS GENERATION OF HOLES AND CLUMPS IN ENERGETIC PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION BEYOND THE EXPLOSIVE SCENARIO AND FREQUENCY-SWEEPING MODESFully Non-linear 1D Bump-on-Tail (ВОТ) Model for Long- Time Non-linear Scenarios beyond the Explosive PhaseNon-linear Frequency-Sweeping Scenarios Observed Experimentally for TAEs Excited with Energetic Ions Resulted from the Drag RelaxationREFERENCESAlfvén Eigenmodes in “Advanced Tokamak” PlasmasADVANCED TOKAMAK SCENARIOS AND INTERNAL TRANSPORT BARRIERSАLFVEN CASCADE (AC) EIGENMODES IN AT DISCHARGES WITH REVERSED MAGNETIC SHEARExperimental ObservationsAnalysis of the Experimental ObservationsEvolution of Alfven Continuum due to Temporal Evolution of Non-Monotonic q-ProfileTheoretical Explanation of ACsREFERENCESAlfvén SpectroscopyALFVEN EIGENMODES, SAWTEETH, AND THE q(r)-PROFILETRIGGERING OF ITBS BY LOW-ORDER RATIONAL qmin AND ALFVEN GRAND CASCADESPLASMA MASS DETERMINATION FROM ACTIVE AE MEASUREMENTSREFERENCESAppendix A: for Chapter 3А.1 COLLISIONAL RELAXATION OF ANISOTROPIC ENERGETIC BEAM IONSAppendix B: for Chapter 4: Curvilinear Coordinates in Toroidal GeometryВ.1 COORDINATE TRANSFORMSB.2 SHAFRANOV COORDINATES FOR TOROIDAL PLASMAВ.З FLUX-TYPE COORDINATES IN TORUSAppendix C: for Chapter 6: Analytical Theory of TAEС.1 DERIVATION OF ТАЕ EQUATIONSC.2 RADIATIVE DAMPING OF TAE AND KINETIC TAEAppendix D: Diagnostics of Alfvén Eigenmodes Excited by Energetic ParticlesD.1 PROPERTIES OF ТАЕD.2 DIAGNOSING AE WITH MIRNOV COILSD.3 FURTHER ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSING ALFVEN INSTABILITIES