Literature Review

A. Theory Planned Behavior (TPB)

TPB is an extended theory from TRA. TPB is more robust and broad and can be implemented in a variety of contexts such as marketing and consumer behavior. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was added to the TPB model to describe the situation where a person has less control (volitional control) on a person's behavior that may reflect the difficulty in performing the behavior. These studies are using TPB for a reason [4]. First, this theory has been tested and used by many researchers because of its flexibility and ease of application in different situations. It has been proven that it can be used to study the intention of customers in purchases for organic personal care products from the perspective of the US consumer behavior [5]. Second, this study has been tested by previous researchers whereby the theory is valid for extending to a variety of learning contexts. Therefore, researchers have decided to use this theory as the main theory in this study [6].

B. Spiritual Intelligence (SQ)

SQ is a fundamental intelligence which controls the whole brain, left and right. SQ scale constructs have been combined and a new construct created. Spirituality per se refers to the search for experiential elements, consciousness, and transcendence which is the ability to predict operational adjustment in the environmental context. Intelligence can be defined as an ability of the individual to solve the problems that he/she faces and a capability to produce products that convey value to the culture and societies [7]. SQ is a hybrid concept that stems from two concepts of spirituality and intelligence, which has a type of intelligence which led to accessibility meaning in one's life. It is a kind of intelligence that resolves the problems in more intelligent life and get connected to the overall aspect which gives a great impact to oneself from others. SQ lies beneath the things people believe in, the role they believe in, and the values they play throughout living and shaping their lives especially in facing problems and making any decisions in daily life [8].

There is an abundance of study that investigates on how the spirituality may give an impact and effect on behavior [7]. However, there is little research of measurement of SQ instrument that has been developed and validated and investigated the relevance of SI in verbalizing such attitudes [9]. Consequently, this research attempts to assess the degree of spiritual intelligence in predicting young adult Muslim women's (user or nonuser) attitude towards their intention to continue purchasing the Halal cosmetics in the future. This research model is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Previous studies have suggested that a Muslim will be more spiritual if his/her behavior has been influenced by the values that match and integrate with the principle and abreast of what, when, where, how, by whom, and how much should be applied [2].

Karakas' [10] aims of the review by integrating three different perspectives on how spirituality enables or leads to organizational performance. It reported a positive relationship between spirituality at work and organizational productivity and performance [11] In his work, he introduced three perspectives on how spirituality (independent variable) benefits the organization as an individual and as a unit by itself. In this study, the researcher modified Karakas' model to suit the consumer perspective. While this study is to examine on how these three perspectives will influence the consumer to purchase Halal cosmetic. Karakas [10] listed spirituality enhances employee well-being in quality of life; give employees a sense of purpose and meaning at work, and provides employees a sense of interconnectedness and community [12].

For instance, Siti Akmar [12] noted that spirituality determined individuals profoundly understand their self-potential in order to comprehend the purpose of their life and value of the relationship between God and themselves as they believe that there is love of God, to own self, and one another when they have a relationship with God [11]. Therefore, current research has included SI as a contribution to the body of knowledge and independence, based on literature and observation of the population of research among urban Muslim females in Malaysia in purchasing Halal cosmetics.

1. Sense of Meaning (God)

The first component of spiritual intelligence involves the capacity to critically understand the meaning, purpose, and other existential or metaphysical issues. SQ is closely related to God or religion [13]. It refers to one's personal experience interpersonally about God and something extraordinary or about something that is pure. Several researchers noted that those who have a high level of SQ will automatically have a positive attitude towards religion and a positive relationship with God. Who experienced attachment with God should experience greater comfort in a stressful situation and greater strength and confidence in everyday life.

The experience of a personal relationship with God functions similarly to an individual relationship [14]. Therefore, this study can be developed in order to study the behavior of a person in making purchase decision cosmetic products that may be closely related to one's relationship with God.

2. Sense of Community (Society)

The second component is defined as perceived society dimensions of others (e.g., reputation and sense of community). Society can be defined as a group of people who share the same purpose of life including the belief, attitude, values, and norms of behavior. It can create values within a community, and it helps the stability of beliefs and attitudes that can be shared with the local community [12]. Society is a “domain” among people that have a collective thought pattern, feelings, and actions that dwell together.

The person with a high degree of intelligence will show a good manner and is nicer to others [15]. They have uphold the sense of community and become concerned on how they described their relationship with others in their immediate social environment, as many pressures to react to a situation are perceived to come from other people. It consists of two subdimensions which are called reputation and sense of community [11, 12].

3. Consumer Well-Being (Self)

The third component involves the capacity to perceive the dimensions of the self, on how they make the best decision, and how the capabilities will lead them to be a better person [11, 15]. The researcher breaks self into five capabilities: integrity, forgiveness, patience, materialism, and hygiene. Nobody is perfect in this world, but a spiritual level distinguishes one from the other.

SQ is an instrument of a person to raise the level of moral values in them. It shows that the SQ is closely related to the actions and attitudes of one's own. The background of the study is to investigate the degree level of SQ among individuals through making their own decision in purchasing cosmetic products [16]. Either the awareness of the Halal logo on the packaging of the product may influence their decision-making to purchase Halal cosmetic or not.

 
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >