Table of Contents:

Concluding remarks

This chapter has introduced the global tourism industry as a polymorphic assemblage of actors. The aspirations of governments in the Global South to expand tourism tend to converge with the interests of transnational tourism corporations that have little regard for the customary rights of local communities. Land grabs and displacement are driven by a confluence of excess capital and excessive mobilities and are supported by a range of discourses that are deployed by governments, corporate actors, bilateral donors and international financial institutions to legitimise such human rights violations. The involvement of armed forces and private security firms - particularly but not exclusively in authoritarian regimes - has contributed to both the implementation and securitisation of tourism-associated dispossession and displacement. Finan-cialisation by sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, internationally operating commercial banks and private equity firms plays an indirect but crucial role in the proliferation of land grabs and evictions for tourism purposes. Tourism watchdogs, pressure groups and transnational social movements have emerged as an important counterbalance to the predatory activities of the tourism sector but are facing an uphill battle.

The next chapter will introduce the state as one of the key players in tourism-related land grabs and displacement in the Global South. Instruments employed by the state include the delineation of tourism zones, the provision of investorfriendly land legislation and economic incentives, and the direct allocation of land concessions at discounted rates to tourism investors. Case studies from Mexico, the Philippines, Cambodia and Timor-Leste will illustrate the use of these instruments by state actors, the alliances that state entities form with other powerful actors and the impact these have on the customary land rights of communities in the targeted areas.

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