This chapter has introduced the state as one of the central actors in grabbing land and displacing people to make way for large-scale tourism developments. Tourism development is increasingly prioritised by governments in the Global South over environmental concerns and the legitimate land and resource rights of local people. As the examples from Mexico, Philippines, Cambodia and Timor Leste have shown, the state apparatus — which may include powerful national tourism organisations, national banks, and other agencies — deploys a range of mechanisms to expropriate and evict communities, e.g. through tourism zoning, allocation of concessions, government-commissioned feasibility studies, police and military force, threat of violence, and development of infrastructure for ‘public purpose’. Community resistance to such state-led tourism development has often been squashed by the use of state violence.
The following chapter will show how state-led tourism development interacts with corporate forces and gradually expands from resort tourism to residential tourism whereby the rights of local citizens to a clean environment, access to beaches and near-shore fishing grounds, and access to safe drinking water are increasingly compromised. The chapter will draw on examples from Indonesia, Vanuatu, Costa Rica and Mauritius.
Ambrosie, L.M. (2015) ‘Myths of tourism institutionalization and Cancún’, Annals of Tourism Research, 54: 65—83.
Asian Peasant Coalition (APC) and Kilusang Magbubukid Ng Pilipinas (KMP) (2012) Report of the International Solidarity Mission to Save Hacienda Looc and Peasant Livelihoods: Executive Summary. Available at: www.democraciaycooperacion.net/IMG/p df/ISM-HL_Executive_Summary_Report.pdf (accessed 6 January 2019).
Atkins, S. (2016) Land Grabbing, Tourism and Conservation in the Philippines. Lambert Academic Publishing: Saarbrücken, Germany.
Baleva, M.K.A. (2019) Regaining Paradise Lost: Indigenous Land Rights and Tourism. Brill: Boston.
Bouchon, F. (2020) ‘Can tourism be a success story? Stakeholders’ management and narratives of rural tourism. Reflexive analysis of a tourism project in Timor Leste’ in Nair, V., Hamzah, A. and Musa, G. (eds) Responsible Rural Tourism in Asia. Channel View Publications: Bristol and Blue Ridge Summit, pp. 177-194.
Calvan, D. (2015) Land, Property and Tenurial Rights in a Changing Coastal Environment. Land Watch Asia, Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. Available at: www.angoc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Land-Prop erty-etc_final.pdfc (accessed 1 January 2019).
Clancy, MJ. (1999) ‘Tourism and development: Evidence from Mexico’, Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (1): 1-20.
Clancy, M. (2001) Exporting Paradise: Tourism and Development in Mexico. Pergamon: Amsterdam.
Dominguez Aguilar, M. and Garcia de Fuentes, A. (2007) ‘Barriers to achieving the water and sanitation-related Millennium Development Goals in Cancún, Mexico at the beginning of the twenty-first century’, Environment & Urbanization, 19 (1): 243—260.
Drbohlav, P. and Hejkrlik, J. (2018) ‘Social and economic impacts of land concessions on rural communities of Cambodia: Case study of Botum Sakor National Park’, International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, 14 (1): 165-189.
Export-Import Bank of China (2018) Annual Report 2017. Available at: http://english. eximbank.gov.cn/upload/accessory/201812/20181241554.3010122.pdf (accessed 14 January 2019).
Farley, K.A., Ojeda-Revah, L., Atkinson, E.E., Ricardo Eaton-González, B. and Gonzalez, V.V. (2012) ‘Changes in land use, land tenure, and landscape fragmentation in the Tijuana River Watershed following reform of the ejido sector’, Land Use Policy, 29: 187-197.
Gladstone, D.L. (2005) From Pilgrimage to Package Tour: Travel and Tourism in the Third World. Routledge: London, New York.
Gonzalez, V.V. (2013) Securing Paradise: Tourism and Militarism in Hatvai’i and the Philippines. Duke University Press: Durham, London.
Hall, D., Hirsch, P. and Li, T.M. (2011) Powers of Exclusion: Land Dilemmas in Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu.
Hiernaux-Nicolas, D. (2003) ‘Mexico: Tensions in the Fordist model of tourism development’ in Hoffman, L.M., Fainstein, S.S. and Judd, D.R. (eds) Cities and Visitors: Regulating People, Markets and City Space. Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA, Oxford and Carlton, pp. 187-199.
La’o Hamutuk (2017) Special Economic Zone in Oecusse. Available at: www.laohamutuk. org/econ/Oecussi/ZEESMlndex.htm (accessed 6 January 2019).
Meitzner Yoder, L.S. (2011) ‘Tensions of tradition: Making and remaking claims to land in the Oecusse enclave' in McWilliam, A. and Traube, E.G. (eds) Land and Life in Timor Leste: Ethnographic Essays. Australian National University Press: Canberra, pp. 187—216.
Meitzner Yoder, L.S. (2015) ‘The development eraser: Fantastical schemes, aspirational distractions and high modern mega events in the Oecusse enclave, Timor-Leste’, Journal of Political Ecology, 22: 299-321.
Meitzner Yoder, L.S. (2016) ‘The formation and remarkable persistence of the Oecusse-Ambeno enclave, Timor’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 47 (2), 281—303.
Meitzner Yoder, L.S. (2018) ‘Economic techno-politics and technocratic development in the Oecusse-Ambeno enclave, Timor-Leste’, The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 19 (5): 395-411.
Moncada, P. (2009) ‘Desastres y turismo [Disasters and tourism]’, Boletín Turístico de Cancún [Tourism Bulletin of Cancún], 2 (2): 2-14.
Murray, G. (2007) ‘Constructing paradise: the impacts of big tourism in the Mexican coastal zone’, Coastal Management, 35 (2—3): 339-355.
Neef, A. (2016) ‘Cambodia: Land grabs and dispossession by government design. Rural, 213: 20-22.
Neef, A. and Touch, S. (2015) ‘Local responses to land grabbing and displacement in rural Cambodia' in Price, S. and Singer, J. (eds) Global Implications of Development, Climate Change and Disasters: Responses to Displacement from Asia-Pacific. Routledge: London, New York, pp. 124-141.
Neef, J. (2019) Livelihood Changes of Resettled Communities in the Koh Kong Province, Cambodia. Unpublished Master thesis. University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart.
Ong, L.T.J., Storey, D. and Minnery, J. (2011) ‘Beyond the beach: Balancing environmental and socio-cultural sustainability in Boracay, the Philippines’, Tourism Geographies, 13 (4): 549-569.
Padilla, N.S. (2015) ‘The environmental effects of tourism in Cancun, Mexico’, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 6 (1), 282—293.
Pérez Villegas, G. and Carrascal, E. (2010) ‘El desarrollo turístico en Cancón, Quintana Roo y sus consecuencias sobre la cubierta vegetal [Tourist development in Cancán, Quintana Roo and its consequences on vegetation coverage]’, Investigaciones Geográficas, Boietin del Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, 43: 145-166.
Richter, L.K. (1999) ‘After political turmoil: the lessons of rebuilding tourism in three Asian countries’, Journal of Travel Research, 38: 41—45.
Richter, L. (2008) ‘Tourism policy-making in Southeast Asia: A twenty-first century perspective' in Hitchcock, M., King, V.T., and Parnwell, M. (eds) Tourism in Southeast Asia: Challenges and New Directions. Northern Institute of Asian Studies Press: Copenhagen, pp. 132—145.
Rose, M. (2017) ‘“Development”, resistance and the geographies of affect in Oecussi: Timor-Leste’s Special Economic Zone (ZEESM)’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 38: 201-215.
Sao, V. (2015) A Study on Resettlement Schemes of Large Scale Land Lease to Chinese Investment in Cambodia: Case Study of Union Development Group, Co., Ltd. Working Paper, Mekong Institute, Khon Kaen: Thailand.
Smith, R.A., Henderson, J.C., Chong, V., Tay, C. and Jingwen, Y. (2011) ‘The development and management of beach resorts: Boracay Island, the Philippines’, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 16 (2): 229-245.
Sofield, T.H.B. (2020) ‘“MlupBaitong” - A pioneer in responsible rural tourism in Cambodia’ in Nair, V., Hamzah, A. and Musa, G. (eds) Responsible Rural Tourism in Asia. Channel View Publications: Bristol and Blue Ridge Summit, pp. 162-176.
Telfer, D.J. and Sharpley, R. (2008) Tourism and Development in the Developing World. Routledge: London, New York.
Tenefrancia, R. (2010) Boracay Island: A Case for Reversing Island Tourism Over-Development to Promote Sustainable Tourism. Available at: https://pinoygreenacademy.typepad. com/files/white-paperjuly6_fmal.pdf (accessed 12 January 2019)
Thorne, D. and Spevack, 13. (2017) Harbored Ambitions: Hoiv China’s Port Investments Are Strategically Reshaping the Indo-Pacific. C4ADS: Washington, DC.
Trousdale, WJ. (1999) ‘Governance in context: Boracay Island’, Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (4): 840-867.
Vargas Martinez, E.E., Castillo Nechar, M. and Viesca Gonzalez, F.C. (2013) ‘Ending a touristic destination in four decades: Cancun’s creation, peak and agony’, International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3 (8): 16-26.
Walker, C.J. and Curet, L.A. (2009) Heritage or Heresy: Archaeology and Culture on the Maya Riviera. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa.
White, A.T. and Rosales, R. (2003) ‘Community-oriented marine tourism in the Philippines: Role in economic development and conservation’ in Gossling, S. (ed.) Tourism and Development in Tropical Islands. Political Ecology Perspectives. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, Northampton, MA, pp. 237—262.
World Bank (2016) Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste Oecusse Economic and Trade potential. World Bank: Washington, DC.
Barahan, M. (2017) ‘Include big landholdings, haciendas in free land distribution-KMP’, ¡nquirer.net, 19 April. Available at: https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/890350/include-big-landholdings-haciendas-in-free-land-distribution-kmp (accessed 6 January 2019).
Barrell, S. (2010) ‘The battle for the beaches of Cancun’, The Independent (UK), 9 May.
Available at: www.independent.co.uk/travel/americas/the-battle-for-the-beaches-of -cancun-1968917.html (accessed 4 June 2020).
Brundage, J. (2016) “‘No environmental damage” to Tajamar Mangrove Canciin: Project to proceed - Mexico government’, 27 January. Available at: https://voicesmotherea rth.blogspot.com/2016/01/no-environmental-damage-to-tajamar.html (accessed 4 June 2020).
Chheng, N. (2018) ‘Government denies Koh Kong Chinese naval base “rumour”’, Phnom Penh Post, 19 November. Available at: www.phnompenhpost.com/national-p olitics/government-denies-koh-kong-chinese-naval-base-rumour (accessed 1 January 2019).
Davidson, H. (2017) ‘Timor-Leste’s big spending: a brave way to tackle economic crisis or just reckless?’, The Guardian, 25 May. Available at: www.theguardian.com/world/ 2017/may/25/timor-leste-spending-big-economic-crisis (accessed 6 January 2019).
Domingo, K. and Plácido, D. (2018) ‘Duterte distributes land to Ati tribe in Boracay’, ABS-CBN News, 11 August. Available at: https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/ll/08/ 18/duterte-distributes-land-to-ati-tribe-in-boracay (accessed 5 January 2019).
Gita, R.A. (2018) ‘Duterte flies to Boracay to distribute land titles’, SunStar Philippines, 8 November. Available at: www.sunstar.com.ph/article/1773152 (accessed 13January 2019).
Guy, J. (2018) ‘Uncontrolled development turns Mexican tourist paradise into an environmental time bomb’, Equal Times, 18 January. Available at: www.equaltimes.org/ uncontrolled-development-turns?lang=en#.XxfhVCgzaUk (accessed 8 June 2020).
Gomez, E.J. (2018) ‘Ati tribal land turned into Boracay agro-tourism area’, The Manila Tinies, 28 June. Available at: www.manilatimes.net/ati-tribal-land-turned-into-bora cay-agro-tourism-area/413226/ (accessed 20 December 2018).
Hernández, A. (2016) ‘“Malecón Tajamar”: Economic progress or environmental pitfall?’ Yucatan Times, 22 January. Available at: www.theyucatantimes.com/2016/ 01/malecon-tajamar-economic-progress-or-environmental-pitfall/ (accessed 6 June 2020).
Houghton, R. (2012) ‘Americans stake claim in Mexico’s (Riviera Maya) land rush’. 12 September. Available at: https://blog.investmentpropertiesmexico.com/investment/ 2012/09/13/americans-stake-claim-in-mexicos-riviera-maya-land-rush (accessed 4 June 2020).
Lacey, M. (2009) ‘A battle as the tide takes away Cancún sand’, New York Tinies, 17 August. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2009/08/18/world/americas/18cancun. html (accessed 4 June 2020).
Lopez-Mills, D. (2010) ‘Cancun’s famous beaches threatened by erosion, climate change’, Associated Press, 12 April. Available at: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/travel/destina tions/2010-12-04-cancun-beaches-erosion-climate-change_N.htm (accessed 4 June 2020).
Mangrove Action Network (2016) ‘Save the Mangroves at Tajamar’, lOJune. Available at: https://mangroveactionproject.blogspot.com/2016/06/save-mangroves-at-tajama r.htm (accessed 4 June 2020).
Mexico News Daily (2017) ‘(Another) plan for the recovery of beaches’, 25 February.
Available at: https://mexiconewsdaily.com/news/another-plan-for-the-recovery-of-qr-beaches/ (accessed 4 June 2020).
Monroe, R. (2017) ‘How rich hippies and developers went to war over Instagram’s favourite beach’, The Guardian, 26 April. Available at: www.theguardian.com/news/ 2017/apr/26/tulum-mexico-hotel-evictions-instagram-favourite-beach (accessed 4 June 2020).
Murray, H. (2019) ‘What is the fideicomiso?’ Available at: www.expatsinmexico.com/ what-is-the-fideicomiso/ (accessed 2 June 2020).
Nachemson, A. (2018) ‘A Chinese colony takes shape in Cambodia’, Asia Tinies, 5 June.
Available at: www.atimes.com/article/a-chinese-colony-takes-shape-in-cambodia/ (accessed 16 January 2019).
Ranada, P. (2014) ‘Violence looms over Ati tribe ancestral domain in Boracay’, Rappier, 26 February. Available at: www.rappler.com/nation/51635-ati-tribe-security-threa t-ancestral-domain#cxrecs_s (accessed 19 December 2018).
Ranada, P. (2018a) ‘Boracay natives can sell land to big firms, if they want - Duterte’, Rappier, 13 June (updated 16 October). Available at: www.rappler.com/nation/2047 96-duterte-boracay-natives-sell-land-big-businesses#cxrecs_s (accessed 19 December
Ranada, P. (2018b) ‘Only 8 hectares of Boracay land to be distributed to Ati tribe’, Rappier, 23 October. Available at: www.rappler.com/nation/214985-only-8-hecta res-boracay-land-to-be-distributed-to-ati-tribe (accessed 23 December 2018).
Rivas, R. (2018) ‘Boracay to become coconut producer under agrarian reform’, 4 June.
Available at: www.rappler.com/nation/204087-boracay-coconut-producer-agrarian-reform#cxrecs_s (accessed 20 December 2018).
Sen, D. (2014) ‘Security guards accused of beating’, Phnom Penh Post, 2 July. Available at: www.phnompenhpost.com/national/security-guards-accused-beating (accessed 13 September 2020).
Semple, K. (2016) ‘Evictions by armed men rattle a Mexican tourist paradise’, New York Tinies, 17 August. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2016/08/17/world/americas/m exico-tulum-corruption-evictions.html (accessed 4 June 2020).
Stabroek News (2018) ‘In Cambodia, stalled Chinese casino resort embodies Silk Road secrecy, risks’, 7 June. Available at: www.stabroeknews.com/2018/news/world/06/07/ in-cambodia-stalled-chinese-casino-resort-embodies-silk-road-secrecy-risks/ (accessed 16 January 2019).
The Daily Guardian (2017) ‘Town council mulls more special economic zones in Boracay’,
13 March. Available at: https://thedailyguardian.net/local-news/town-council-m ulls-special-economic-zones-boracay/ (accessed 31 December 2018).
The Manila Times (2018) ‘Nurturing a sustainable partnership’, 17 October. Available at: www.manilatimes.net/nurturing-a-sustainable-partnership/452718/ (accessed 6 January
Wiedeman, R. (2019) ‘Who killed Tulum?’, The New York Times Magazine, 18 February. Available at: www.thecut.com/2019/02/who-killed-tulum.html (accessed 4 June
WWF Philippines (2017) ‘Sea turtles find a haven at Hamilo Coast’. Available at: wwf.org.ph/resource-center/story-archives-2017/sea-turtles-find-a-haven-hamilo-coast/ (accessed 6 January 2019).