Table of Contents:

Concluding remarks

This chapter has introduced the state as one of the central actors in grabbing land and displacing people to make way for large-scale tourism developments. Tourism development is increasingly prioritised by governments in the Global South over environmental concerns and the legitimate land and resource rights of local people. As the examples from Mexico, Philippines, Cambodia and Timor Leste have shown, the state apparatus — which may include powerful national tourism organisations, national banks, and other agencies — deploys a range of mechanisms to expropriate and evict communities, e.g. through tourism zoning, allocation of concessions, government-commissioned feasibility studies, police and military force, threat of violence, and development of infrastructure for ‘public purpose’. Community resistance to such state-led tourism development has often been squashed by the use of state violence.

The following chapter will show how state-led tourism development interacts with corporate forces and gradually expands from resort tourism to residential tourism whereby the rights of local citizens to a clean environment, access to beaches and near-shore fishing grounds, and access to safe drinking water are increasingly compromised. The chapter will draw on examples from Indonesia, Vanuatu, Costa Rica and Mauritius.

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