Table of Contents:

Concluding remarks

This chapter has demonstrated how under both authoritarian and democratic rule, military and tourism can form alliances that control ‘unruly’ minority groups, former enemies and occupied populations. Conflict and post-conflict situations provide a fertile ground for the emergence of a military-tourism complex (cf. Weaver, 2011) whereby armed forces play a pivotal role not only in the securitisation of the tourism industry but also in its further expansion

Conflict and post-conflict contexts 117 both spatially and economically. In a post-conflict context, the military renders itself invisible behind ambitious tourism development plans and glossy marketing devices. Disguised as innocuous tourism actors and legitimised by a ‘tourism and security’ discourse (see Chapter 2), military forces instrumentalise the industry to seize land and displace communities, often under the radar of civil society. The durability of this military-tourism complex is a consequence of its adaptability between times of war and peace and the desire of the majority population to maintain the status quo and of the cosmopolitan tourist to enjoy a safe and secure vacation.

Securitisation is also one of the themes that run through the case studies of the next chapter which looks into the impacts of wildlife tourism and fortress conservation on involuntary relocation. The chapter will introduce protected areas as enclosed spaces of commodified nature for touristic consumption that are associated with various forms of dispossession and displacement. Examples will be drawn from Tanzania, Mozambique, India and Colombia.


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