Table of Contents:

Concluding remarks

This chapter has discussed the potential and shortcomings of a range of legal and regulatory instruments with relevance to tourism-related land grabbing and displacement, including international human rights law, the ILO’s Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the FAO’s Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests, the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, environmental and social safeguards of IFIs, and the Equator Principles. While some of these frameworks have gradually been adopted by tourism stakeholders at government, donor and corporate levels, most of them lack teeth due to their voluntary nature, the absence of measurable criteria and sanction mechanisms, and the lack of regulatory' oversight at international and national level. All too often, pro-tourism rhetoric is being used to justify unethical land acquisition and displacement practices by tourism actors. The preference among corporate tourism actors for self-regulatory code of conducts — which are endorsed by international tourism lobby organisations, such as the WTTG and the UNWTO - also hinder the implementation of stricter and more enforceable legal safeguards against tourism-related land grabs and displacement.

The next and final chapter will draw the conclusions and provide a cautious outlook on the possible emergence of more just and ethical tourism practices in the Global South. It starts with a summary of the key arguments presented in this book and then discusses two contrasting future scenarios for the tourism sector in countries of the Global South against the backdrop of the ongoing GOVID-19 pandemic. It will close by briefly delineating a future research agenda for tourism-related land grabbing and displacement.

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