It is agreed by a group of researchers in a study that administrative ofﬁcers' roles and functions in public universities are directly tied with university administration and management. In running the university administration, compared to the academic staff, university administrative ofﬁcers (e.g., assistant registrars) are proven to have more contacts with their direct supervisors who are among the heads of university departments . University administrative ofﬁcers hold good communication network and involve more with the university top management in developing and strategizing the university and faculty policy decision-making and directions. However, the administrative ofﬁcers are keener to work independently rather than working in groups. This indicates the lack of ICB among them. Administrative ofﬁcers also are found to experience less satisfaction with the university leadership which can cause institutional paralysis .
In organization, the existence of high quality of LMX can result the performance of ICB. In many cases, job outcomes are not directly related to personality variables . It is proven that the ability of individuals with certain attributes of personality such as PSM may form high (or low)-quality supervisor-subordinate relationship that, as a result, leads to desired employee outcomes (e.g., ICB) . Therefore, it is predicted that local university administrative ofﬁcers who perform ICB are driven by LMX, and their LMX are motivated by PSM. Hence, there is an existence of LMX quality as a mediation of the relationship between PSM-ICB.
This section discusses on interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB), employee prosocial motivation (PSM), and supervisor rating of leader-member exchange (LMX) quality as a mediator. Three hypotheses are being examined accordingly.
A. ICB as a Unique Element of OCB
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is deﬁned as employee performance that goes beyond what is expected of him or her by his or her own supervisor or organization . Citizenship behavior, which consists of different forms of behavior, has unique antecedents and possesses different characteristics. The employee chooses which citizenship behaviors selectively instead of engaging all equally . The employee targets both the individual and the beneﬁciary of the behavior when selecting to perform OCB elements . Thus, by selecting elements of citizenship behavior to perform and targeting individuals as the beneﬁciary of the behavior, the employee is considered to perform ICB . OCB is typically the outcome of job satisfaction, employee commitment, and procedural justice; but there is no relationship with the performance or receipt of ICB . For instance, employees who do not perform OCB toward the organization may likely are not satisﬁed with their organization. However, the same individuals are willing to help their friends who work in the same organization. In short, these individuals are performing ICB, not OCB.