Learning-Oriented Language Assessment: Putting Theory into Practice


: Learning-Oriented Assessment: Main Issues and an OverviewIntroductionOutstanding Issues in LOAOverview of the VolumeTheoretical and Conceptual Foundations of LOALOA in Instructional SettingsReferencesI: Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations of Learning-Oriented Assessment: Learning-Oriented Assessment: Basic Concepts and Frameworks in Using Assessment to Support Language LearningIntroductionLearning-Oriented Assessment (LOA)A Historical Perspective: The Impact of Large-Scale Examinations on LearningThe Scope of LOALOA Perspectives from around the WorldViews from the UKViews from Asia-PacificAssessment as a Model of Language LearningModels of LOACarless (2007) : LOA – Principles, Practice, and a ProjectTurner and Purpura (2016) : LOA in Second and Foreign Language ClassroomsA Systemic Model of LOA: Towards a Theory of ActionTechnology and LOAAcknowledgmentsReferences: Language Assessment Literacy in a Learning-Oriented Assessment FrameworkIntroductionValidity ParadigmsContextTasks and ItemsRoles in Design and EvaluationPerformanceDistributionsInterpretationsGeneralization and ExtrapolationThe Meaning of Validity in LOAPractical Skills for LOATask Design for Effective LearningSelf- and Peer-AssessmentFeedbackEffective Teacher QuestioningScaffolding of PerformanceLesson Planning and Classroom Management for ReflectionManagement of Affective Impact on LearnersContinuing Professional Development (CPD)ConclusionReferences: Approaches to Researching Learning-Oriented Assessment in Second and Foreign Language ClassroomsIntroductionApproaches to Researching LOA in L2 Contexts: What Has Been Done?Data Collection and Analysis ApproachesInterviews and Content AnalysisNarrative Inquiries and Analysis of NarrativesProviding Evidence for and of LearningAddressing the Multidimensional Nature of LOAApproaches to Researching LOA in L2 Classrooms: A Way ForwardWhat is Learning in LOA?Conducting Quality LOA ResearchIs There a Place for Quantitative LOA Research?References: Success in Language Learning: What Role Can Language Assessment Play?IntroductionThe Story so Far in Europe: The CEFR and the Work of the Council of EuropeLeo van Lier (1996) and His TriadsThe Assessment Reform Group (2002)Pellegrino et al.’s (2016) Framework for Instructionally Relevant AssessmentsTowards Learning-Oriented Assessment: Issues to AddressConceptual Issues: Constructs and ValidityMethodological IssuesPractical IssuesConclusionReferences: Feedback as a Learning-Oriented Assessment Practice: Principles, Opportunities, and ChallengesIntroductionThe Role of Feedback in Learning and LOADevelopments in Theoretical Perspectives on FeedbackImportance of Learner Engagement and Feedback LiteracySix Principles for Feedback PracticesI SpecificIII Appropriate LevelIV Relate to Success CriteriaV Engage the Learner in a Proactive RoleDesigning Feedback Materials and Activities for IC: An IllustrationExtract 1: Extract of IC checklist (full version)IC featureFeedbackExtract 2: Transcript extract for Example 105 2Example 105: P06Extract 3: Guiding questions for Example 105Extract 4: Lesson learned narrative following Example 105 (excerpt)Challenges to Feedback as LOA PracticeHow to Encourage Learners to Act on FeedbackConclusionAcknowledgmentsNotesReferencesII: Learning-Oriented Assessment in Instructional Settings: Nationwide Assessment Reform in Egypt: Challenges and Potentials of Learning-Oriented Assessment in an Examinations-Based Instructional SettingIntroductionHistorical Background to Education in EgyptLanguage Education in Egyptian SchoolsAssessment Policy in Egyptian SchoolsA Critical Take on the Current Assessment PolicyMismatch between Learning Outcomes and Test ContentAssessment Literacy of TeachersTeachers’ Beliefs about AssessmentUse of Assessment ResultsWork Conditions in SchoolsThe Proposed Assessment PolicyWhat is Needed for this Proposed Learning-Oriented Assessment Policy to Succeed?ConclusionsReferences: Implementing Learning-Oriented Assessment in Egyptian Schools: A Case StudyIntroductionFeedback as an Element of LOASelf- and Peer-Assessment as Components of LOAContext of the StudyResearch QuestionsData CollectionLOA Techniques Used by Egyptian TeachersPerceptions about LOA Design and Implementation at the Two SchoolsImproving the Design and Implementation of LOA at the Reform SchoolsDiscussion and ImplicationsReferences: Implementing Learning-Oriented Assessment in Malaysia: Insights from Key StakeholdersIntroductionPT3 EnglishWashbackMethodologyParticipantsInstrumentsData CollectionData AnalysisFindingsIntended WashbackReduce Exam-Oriented CultureFocus on Student LearningPerspectives on PT3 EnglishUnderstandingAttitudesDiscussion and ConclusionsAppendixReferences: “I Was Not Thoughtful Enough Before”: Exploiting the Learning-Oriented-Assessment Potential of a Test-Taker-Oriented Rubric for Summative AssessmentIntroductionLearning-Oriented AssessmentLOA and the Continuum of Formative to Summative AssessmentLOA and Peer AssessmentThe Instructional ContextThe “You Be the Grader” AssignmentMethodsResearch QuestionsData CollectionParticipantsData Collection ProceduresData Analysis: Grading CommentsData Analysis: Learner ReflectionsResultsEssay Comments: Artifacts of Previous InstructionStudent Reflections on Their Participation in the AssignmentDiscussionConclusionsReferences: Learning-Oriented Assessment from a Teacher’s Perspective: Insights from Teachers’ Action ResearchIntroductionLearning-Oriented Assessment FrameworksTeacher Action Research Programs: A Brief OverviewLOA from a Teacher’s Perspective: Key Features in a Typical LOA CycleIntegration of Assessment for Learning and Assessment of LearningAlignment of the Constructs of Assessment for Learning and Assessment of LearningSummative Assessment Criteria Used Formatively in the ClassroomEvidence and Record-KeepingCollecting Evidence Using a Range of Assessment, Feedback, and Self-Evaluation TasksePortfolios as a Means of Facilitating and Recording Learning ProgressFeedbackePortfolios as a Platform for Self-, Peer-, and Teacher FeedbackUsing a Feed-Forward Approach to Increase Learner Awareness and MotivationLearner AutonomyEnhancing Learner Autonomy through Collaborative Learning, Peer-, and Self-AssessmentUsing Peer Review to Encourage Learner AutonomyUsing Achievable Short-Term Goals to Improve Metacognition and Self-EfficacyFuture Directions for LOA in the ClassroomNotesReferences: The Role of Technology in Learning-Oriented AssessmentIntroductionSupporting Assessment Development as Opportunities for LearningSupporting Student Involvement in the Assessment ProcessSupporting Feedback and Student Engagement with FeedbackFuture DirectionsAdditional ConsiderationsReferences