Citation databases as indicators of research output
The bibliometric literature has emphasised the importance of taking the impact of research into account in order to produce relevant and meaningful indices (Moed,
2002) . However, using citation databases is not without fault (Van Raan, 2005). The more generic technical problems involved in using citation databases as an indicator for rankings systems have been discussed earlier in this chapter.
The ARWU makes use of three citation databases as indicators for research output, utilising papers published in Nature and Science, Science Citation Index-expanded (SCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) (ShanghaiRanking Consultancy,
2003) . Huang (2011) is of opinion that the SCI/SSCI paper indicator overemphasises the quantity of output (numbers of published papers) and fails to measure output quality (the citations/uses of those papers). The Nature/Science indicator has similar issues with the prize winner indicators, over-emphasising extremely outstanding research and being biased toward certain subject disciplines (Huang, 2011). Whilst the absence of ‘perfection’ provides a convenient way to criticise work based on the data sets, it is probably more useful to ensure that potential errors and uncertainties are adequately understood and that conclusions are reliable despite the presence of a small level of error (Cram & Docampo, 2014). The real problem is not the use of bibliometric indicators as such, but the application of less-developed bibliometric measures (Van Raan, 2005).
The per-capita performance indicator
This criterion is clearly affected by all the elements of imprecision and inaccurate determination (Billaut et al., 2010). Moreover, the authors of the ARWU do not fully detail which sources they use to collect information on the number of Full Time Equivalent (FTE) academic staff (Billaut et al., 2010). The various definitions of academic staff amongst different countries and universities can distort the measurement relating to institution size and cause comparison validity problems in the resulting ranking (Huang, 2011). If this data on the size of the institution is not available this dimension is omitted and the ranking is based on the weighted average of the other dimensions, which also results in distortion (Harvey, 2008).
This chapter has dealt with some general and broad fundamental criticisms often levelled at most ranking systems. These range from the philosophical to the practical and from disagreements about what constitutes an excellent university to the questionable value of proxy measures of teaching and learning quality. Perhaps one of the most important issues raised concerns the ability to verify submitted data, particularly given the pressure on those units responsible for rankings submissions in universities around the world. Whilst the HERS insist that they do undertake an audit of submitted data, the key issue is an acceptance that no system of audit would be adequate to satisfy all stakeholders and any audit process is likely to be highly expensive for the rankings agencies who are, after all, in the business to generate income and produce a healthy bottom line.
Whilst many within academia regard the ARWU system of ranking as perhaps the most credible, this chapter has demonstrated that it also has some significant issues in terms of both its methodology’ and, given its remarkable stability, its appeal to the media who are typically looking for changes year on year that they can report on. The use of Nobel or Fields prizes, highly cited researchers, citation databases and per capita performance indicators all pose unique problems in practice which are difficult to reconcile satisfactorily. In Chapter 5, the same critical lens will be turned on the QS WUR which, whilst undoubtedly having media appeal, has potential problems with its chosen methods, veracity’ of submitted data and reliance upon reputational indicators. Chapter 6 considers the youngest of the Big Three HERS, the THE WUR which manifests many' of the potential issues related to the QS WUR as well suffering from the omission of any indicator which can realistically be related to employment. Given that most graduates enter the job market after their first degree, this might be considered an important area of focus for any’ university' and HERS.
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