The qualitative approach adopted in this study falls under a DTS framework. Sixteen emotion conceptual metaphors were identified from the English ST Long walk to freedom (Mandela 1994), and compared with their counterparts in the isiXhosa target text (TT) Indicia ende eya enkululekweni (Mandela 2001) The ST was selected because it is an autobiography. According to Olney (1980,13), an autobiography is a specialised genre that offers “privileged access to an experience that no other variety of writing can offer”. It is therefore an appropriate text to explore whether the translator conceptualised the author’s emotions in the same way as in the ST. Honey (2006) argues that an autobiography must be rendered faithfully, requiring minimal or no manipulation when it is translated, whereas Yun (2017) asserts that it may have two competing voices, namely the author’s voice and the translator’s voice.

As noted above, metaphor translation requires excellent translator competence in terms of cultural knowledge. In this regard, the text is also suitable since the author (Mandela) and the translator (Mtuze) share the same language and culture. However, since ghost writers were involved (Nokele 2015), their conceptions possibly influenced the choice of ST metaphors.

The metaphors were identified using the metaphor identification procedure established at the Vrije Universiteit (MIPVU) (Steen et al. 2010), which is an extension of the Pragglejaz Group’s (2007) procedure. Unlike words, the meanings of metaphors cannot be identified on the surface structure and are context-dependent, hence MIPVU explores the deep structure of the word. The identification process involves the following steps (Steen et al. 2010:25-26):

  • 1 Find metaphor-related words by examining the text word-for-word.
  • 2 When a word is used indirectly and that use may potentially be explained by a form of cross-domain mapping from a more basic meaning of that word, mark the word as used metaphorically.
  • 3 When a word is used directly and its use may potentially be explained by a form of cross-domain mapping to a more basic referent or topic in the text, mark the word as direct metaphor.
  • 4 When words are used for the purpose of lexico-grammatical substitution, such as third person personal pronouns, or when ellipsis occurs where words may be missing, as in some forms of co-ordination, and when a direct or indirect meaning is conveyed by those substitutions or ellipses that may potentially be explained by a form of cross-domain mapping from a more basic meaning, referent or topic, insert a code for an implicit metaphor.
  • 5 When a word functions as a signal that a cross-domain mapping may be at play, mark it as a metaphor flag.
  • 6 When a word is a neologism, examine the distinct words that are its independent parts according to steps 2 through 5.

Dictionaries were used to confirm a word’s metaphoric nature by determining its basic and contextual meaning. These include the Macmillan online dictionary (s.a.) (2020), The Oxford English online dictionary (s.a.), The greater dictionary of IsiXhosa, Vols 1-3 (Pahl et al. 1989; Mini et al. 2003; Tshabe and Shoba 2006), the Oxford English-Xhosa dictionary (Fischer et al. 1985) and the Kafir-English dictionary (Kropf 1915). The metaphor-related words were then mapped to establish the word’s semantics. The same procedure was followed in identifying and verifying the semantics of the TT lexical item. Although the procedure is timeconsuming, it is reliable and unambiguous. The ST and TT metaphors identified were described according to Kovecses’s (2010) typology and then compared with each other. This procedure is illustrated in Example

  • 1 (Extract 15):
    • (la) ST: “Walter’s visit caused a storm within the Executive” (Mandela 1994:184)

There are eight lexical units in this sentence, of which rhe noun ‘storm’ is annotated as being metaphor-related. The contextual meaning is sense

  • 2 in the Macmillan online dictionary: a situation in which many people are upset or excited, referring to the anger felt by the executive as a result of Walter’s actions, whereas the basic meaning refers to an occasion when a large quantity of rain falls very quickly, often with very strong winds or thunder and lightning. The contextual and basic meanings are distinct: hence the anger experienced by the members of the Executive is understood in terms of a storm with strong winds or thunder and lightning. This leads to the cognitive decision that the word ‘storm’ is used metaphorically: the underlying conceptual metaphor being EMOTION (anger) IS A NATURAL FORCE (Kbvecses 2010).
  • (lb) TT: Utyelelo lukaWalter Iwadala ingxtvabansxwaba kwiKomiti eLamulayo (Mandela 2001:144). [BT: visit of-Walter caused turmoil within-the-committee that-was-ruling]

In the TT sentence, ingxwabangxwaba is metaphor-related. The contextual and basic meanings of ingxwabangxwaba are both sense 1 in the Greater dictionary of IsiXhosa (GDX): inkathazo, uqhushululu, undo (turmoil; trouble; fighting), but the contextual meaning is not about (concrete) physical fighting, but about an (abstract) angry argument. Inkathazo according to Kropf (1915) is “annoyance, vexation, trouble”. Uqhushululu according to GDX is “quarrelling, uproar, dissension”. The anger experienced by the Executive towards Walter is expressed figuratively in terms of physical fighting; therefore the underlying metonymic relationship is EMOTION (anger) IS WAR. The underlying conceptual metaphors in the ST and TT differ, illustrating that the translation reveals the thought processes of the translator: in his imagination, he saw the Executive having a heated argument.

The following section presents the findings and discussion of the emotion metaphors identified in the ST and TTs.

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