The Architect model: France
France represents the best example of a social welfare model driven by government funding and intense levels of industry involvement; a “strong sense of cultural mission has traditionally taken the form of direct state intervention ... even after more than a decade of decentralization ... central government still intervenes energetically in the arts” (Loosely, 2001, p. 1). Beyond longstanding support for classical music since the 1950s, some forms of popular music support were established in the 1970s by Minister of Culture, Jack Lang, with an emphasis on local organisations and councils and the “management of legislative and tax tools intended to boost musical creation and diffusion” (French Coalition for Cultural Diversity, 2008, p. 39). This was also driven by a broader “cultural democracy approach” (Perrin, 2017, p. 11) that incorporated “contemporary” arts and cultural activities, including “non-classical” music. An historic approach—that culture cannot be solely reduced to its economic terms and functions—is summarised in Lang’s assertion of “economy and culture, same fight” (cited in Perrin. 2017, p. 9).
France has two tax measures of significance for music. A 3.5% tax on nearly all variety show tickets collected by the Centre National des Varietes, de la Chanson et du Jazz (CNV) (with the exception of classical, religious and traditional music) is redistributed to performing arts companies to fund other forms of suppoxt. Since 2006, the countiy has operated a tax credit mechanism for the recording industry that
represents 20% of the total amount of expenses for development and digitization, with a ceiling set at €350,000 per recording, for a total that cannot exceed €500,000. In 2006, this measure benefited 47 enterprises for a total amount of 2.7 million euros.
(Coalition francaise pour la diversite culturelle, 2008, p. 42)
This is partly designed to compensate for expenses related to digitisation. Programmes/funding are available to enhance content creation and exchange in overseas territories, including the Fund for Cultural and Artistic Exchange for the French Overseas Territories (FEAC); “Outside the walls”, a one- to three-month programme for artists to stay abroad; and touring and concerts abroad to support the promotion of SACEM repertoire internationally (up to 30% of the artistic budget).
The country has a rich patchwork of peak industry organisations, government departments, regional agencies and institutes, and is vocal in a range of European and international industry debates (e.g. content diversity, cultural taxes, content protections/quotas, the role of global digital platforms). Key bodies of this industry network—SACEM (the collection society for composers), CNV (live music support fund), SCPP (society for producers of phonograms and videograms), SPPF (French sound recording producers partnership), FCM (musical support fund) and ADAMI (collection society for recordings and performance)—provide approximately 50% of the Bureau’s funding (Le Bureau
Export, 2015). PRODISS (the national union of producers, broadcasters and theatres) also contributes to central policy discussions in ensuring live perfor- mance/touring provides a “springboard” for international exposure. The French institutes and the Alliances Francaises form components of the wider cultural network that are centrally funded.
Le Bureau Export de la Musique Francaise was established in 1993, initially funded by labels and publishers, with later funding also provided by the national government. Initially established to assist the visibility of French recordings and concerts and related sales, the organisation has 30 staff working across Paris and its current international offices in Berlin, London, New York and Sao Paulo. Their office in Japan was closed in 2016, and they are currently researching offices in Asia and Los Angeles, so they are on “both sides of the states with access to Canada and Mexico” (Interview 26, 2017). The English and German offices are the largest, with five staff working across communications, relations with partners and in contact with French professionals.
Le Bureau Export provides a broad intermediary role, working with music businesses to develop strategies, provide promotional resources and advice and build relationships with international festivals and showcase market events. Funding programmes are provided upon the condition of co-label/businesses investment:
Figure 6.2 Music export funding: France.
It used to be that we provided funding to support projects—for example promotion funds, touring funds, mobility, or marketing—now we only have one much bigger project fund. If you want to have, for example ... a PR in the States, to spread your sounds, you can ask for half of the money of the salary of the person you will engage there.
(Interview 26, 2017)
The Bureau receives approximately €4.5m per year (ibid.) from combinations of industry, Ministry of Culture and Foreign Office funding. In 2014, the Bureau supported 145 artists across showcase events and tours, facilitated 1,256 individual meetings/speed meetings between 141 French professionals and 164 international professionals from 32 countries and stated that 280 artists benefited from engagement with Bureau staff (Le Bureau Export, 2015). Past promotions have played upon organising themes for different market emphasises, such as “Chic Schnack” (Germany), “Francomusics”, “France Rocks in the USA”, “Frecho”, “French Music UK” and “Oui Love” (Britain) (ibid.). “Made in France” promotions have also been developed for Germany, the United States, Japan and the United Kingdom. Applicants for funding must meet at least one of the eligibility criteria for funding: That they are signed with a French phonograph producer or with a distribution licence for export to a French phonographic producer; their publisher is French and/or their works are listed in the repertoire of SACEM; or the producer of their shows is French (Le Bureau Export, 2017). In 2019, the Bureau provided assistance across contemporary, classical and jazz genres, including “personalised advice”, “professional meetings”, “export workshops”, and “promotion” events and marketing resources, including “Made in France” promotions, and “What the France” playlists (Le Bureau Export, 2019). The central funded activities are classified under “Export 1 (contemporary, classical and jazz): development of an international project”; and “Export 2” (“contemporary, classical and jazz”) “supports a complete export strategy developed around an internationally confirmed artist, in one or more territories, [over] several years” (ibid., np).
France retains much of the export-embassy linkages evident in 1970s and 1980s models. In 2011 Culturesfrance was replaced with a strategy to “unify under the single label, ‘Institut francais’, the diverse structures that compose the French cultural network: institutes, centres, cultural departments of embassies” (Perrin, 2016, p. 22). Both the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Institut Francais work with different “territorial authorities” on coordinated cultural policies with French cultural networks abroad, including “cultural promotion and branding” (ibid., p. 28). Through the Institut, nations are invited to promote their cultural wares through “cultural seasons” and “cultural years” in France, while '"French seasons' abroad are regularly organised with partner countries and constitute multidisciplinary showcases for French arts and culture” (ibid., p. 29). In addition, artist residency programmes within France and abroad are funded to increase European engagement.
The country also has looser definitions of “national” production. Export Bureau assistance is available for artists outside France who qualify through the artist or production being defined as French, and where royalties flow back to France:
Some artists chose to move to where they want their art to be better promoted. Artists move to Paris because they have more support to expoxt, they are thinking about creating and where they want their audience to be. If, for example, they don’t have the means to create where they are from, then they can come to France to make music, for example [from] some parts of Africa.
(Interview 26, 2017)
The welfarist model remains a central component of ambitions and funding,1 driven by the Secretariat, Heritage, Artistic Creation divisions and organisational emphasis upon the French language within the Ministry of Culture and Communication. Yet the Media and Cultural Industries Directorate, formed in 2010, signalled moves to broader support to industries, entrepreneurs and the “digital revolution”. In relation to music, four staff in the Directorate are engaged across legal, tax and industry development work. The service works in “building its financial devices for the industry, and it can concern all levels of entrepreneurs. You have the small, the middle and the major companies” (Interview 27, 2017). Calls for additional funding of the export office were answered with an increase of €500,000 funding in 2016; an additional €100,000 in 2017; and a further €800,000 in 2018 (Ministry of Culture, 2018). The 2018 budget for the Bureau was €2.7m (Nyssen, 2018).
In July 2015, an industry white paper published by Tons pour la musique (2015) contained 21 recommendations to improve music exports, including increases in state funding, regulatory reform (improving processes for touring, visas, etc), greater communication/coordination between industry and state organisations, broadening the Bureau’s sendees to include the recording and management sectors and an increase in the number of branch offices. This reflected similar calls within other nations to address wider regulatory problems beyond funding mechanisms, including better integration of sectors and strategies, the need for a National Music Centre at the centre of such coordination, and the provision of data (Maistre, 2017). Further Architect measures were evident in the 2018 national budget, announcing €lm to fund cultural entrepreneurship initiatives including start-ups and the professionalisation of entrepreneurs (Ministry of Culture, 2018).