Note

1 A 2016 survey of French artists found that 40% of performers receive less than €15,000 per year; for recording artists, the figure was 69% (ADAMI, 2016). French cultural workers share the problems of their international counterparts in that work is represented by “more flexible jobs, more short-term contracts, more scattered remunerations” (Perrin, 2017, p. 28). Welfare support is available for artists: Through the Intermittent du spectacle programme, a capped unemployment benefit is available at average salary rates for musicians to continue full-time work as artists. This continues to be controversial; an agreement was reached in 2016 that “maintains the regime while introducing modifications (increasing financing from employers, for instance)”; and the government established a national fund to support “durable employment in the performing arts” (ibid., p. 29).

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