Crime and Intelligence Analysis: An Integrated Real-Time Approach

What You’ll Find in This BookI Crime and the Twenty-First CenturyOutlineThe Crime ProblemLearning Objectives for Chapter 1IntroductionIs There a Crime Problem in the United States?Analyzing the Crime ProblemThis Book Is an Introduction to Crime AnalysisDefinitions of Terms and ConceptsTechnology and CrimeQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesWhat Do We Know about Crime?OutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 2IntroductionHow Is Crime Measured?Reporting on the Amount of CrimeUniform Crime ReportsChanges in UCRWhere Do the Statistics for the UCR Program Come From?UCR and Violent CrimeUCR and Property CrimeUCR and ClearancesUCR and Arrest RatesDrawbacks of the UCR ProgramResults from the UCR ProgramNational Incident-Based Reporting SystemBeyond the UCR ProgramNational Crime Victimization SurveyStrengths and Drawbacks of the NCVSResults of the NCVSSelf-Report DataResults of Self-Report StudiesDrawbacks of Self-Report MeasuresComparing the Results of the UCR Program, the NCVS, and Self-Report MeasuresViewing Crime through the Prism of StatisticsUtilizing Statistics as a Form of Accountability: CompStatThe Crime Analyst and StatisticsStatistical Data and Law Enforcement: From Incident to EvaluationProcess of Data Collection and StorageComputer-Aided DispatchRecords Management SystemGeographic Data System: ArcGISWorking the Collected Data Using Data SetsSummaryQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesWhat Causes People to Commit Crimes?OutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 3Theories about the Origins of CrimeEarly TheoriesClassical TheoriesBiological TheoriesThe PositivistsPsychoanalysis and PsychologyOther Psychological TheoriesSociological ExplanationsIs It Nature or Nurture?Which Theory or Theories Work Best for the Crime Analyst?What Use Does the Tactical Crime Analyst Have for Criminological Theories?The Standard ModelCommunity PolicingBroken Windows PolicingProblem-Oriented PolicingIntelligence-Led PolicingModus Operandi of the Criminal OffenderWhy Do We Still Have Crime?Questions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesII Law Enforcement—Then and NowThe Police and Law Enforcement: It’s Come a Long WayOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 4IntroductionLaw Enforcement Response to CrimesDo State or Federal Law Enforcement Officers Respond?How Did Our Dual System of Policing Evolve?The First Police DepartmentsTransitional PolicingResearch on Policing and the Prevention of CrimeHow Reports or Complaints of Crime Get to Police OfficersThe 911 Emergency SystemEnhanced 911CADNext Generation 911Role of Police Officers TodayPatrol FunctionPeacekeeping and Order MaintenanceTraffic Enforcement FunctionsCriminal InvestigationsInvestigative ProcessThe InvestigatorEras of Police Reform Leading to ChangeCompStatPolicing in the 2000sQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesPolice Investigations in the Twenty-First CenturyOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 5IntroductionRules of Procedure in Collecting EvidenceSearch and SeizureStop and FriskProcedural LawRules of EvidenceExclusionary RuleFruit of the Poisonous Tree DoctrineExceptions to the Search Warrant RuleSearch Incident to a Lawful ArrestPlain-View SearchesConsent to SearchExigent CircumstancesSearch of an AutomobileSearch of a Person: The Pat-Down SearchPublic Safety ExceptionsGood Faith ExceptionInterrogation of SuspectsCriminal Investigation and IntelligenceQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesIII Intelligence and Intelligence AnalysisAn Introduction to IntelligenceOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 6IntroductionCriminal InvestigationsHow Investigations Are Carried OutFollow-Up InvestigationEvidenceDirect and Circumstantial EvidenceBasic Investigative Leads and InformantsThe Crime Analyst and Police InvestigationsConfidential InformantsRole of Databases in InvestigationsIntelligence ReportsCriminal ProfilesGeographical ProfilingTime–Event Charting and Link AnalysisQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesIntelligence and the Tactical AnalystOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 7IntroductionReal-Time Crime CentersIntelligence ProcessFive-Step Intelligence ProcessThe Intelligence AnalystAnalyst ResponsibilitiesIntelligence-Led PolicingIntelligence and the Terrorist ThreatIntelligence: Post-9/11Questions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesCollecting IntelligenceOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 8IntroductionInterplay between the Intelligence Analyst and the Criminal InvestigatorSources of InformationQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesData Mining and Analyzing IntelligenceOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 9IntroductionWhat Is Data Mining?How Does Data Mining Work?Computer-Based Transaction ProcessingRole of Information Technology and Transaction ProcessingAnalytical SystemsSoftware Available for Data Mining in Criminal JusticeStatisticalMachine LearningNeural NetworkWhat Kinds of Relationships Can Data Mining Software Reveal?Entity ExtractionsClustersAssociationsSequentialSumming UpQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesIV Crime AnalysisHistory and Types of Crime AnalysisOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 10IntroductionClassification of Crime AnalysisTactical Crime AnalysisGoals of Tactical Crime AnalysisThe Tactical Crime Analyst Working in Real TimeTactical Analysis, Crisis Management, and NegotiationWhat the Tactical Analyst Needs to UnderstandCrisis Management ProtocolTactical Analyst Training Is CrucialHostage/Crisis NegotiatorTactical Analyst in a Crisis SituationTraining of the Tactical Crime AnalystMutual UnderstandingStrategic Crime AnalysisGoals of Strategic Crime AnalysisAdministrative Crime AnalysisExamples of Administrative Crime AnalysisPolice Operations AnalysisFour Types of Crime AnalysisQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesTactical Crime AnalysisOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 11IntroductionIdentifying Emerging Crime PatternsStandards and Definitions Related to Crime PatternsWhat Is a Crime Pattern?What a Crime Pattern Is NotCrime Pattern TypesThe Crime Analyst’s Task in Identifying Emerging Crime PatternsCarefully Analyzing the Crime PatternNotify the Police Department about the Identified PatternWork with the Police to Address the Crime PatternTools for Analyst CommunicationProviding Actionable InformationGetting Analysts out of the OfficeArray of Tactics and StrategiesEncouraging Initiative throughout the Police DepartmentThe Ideal Is a Formal Response ProcessProcess of Investigation: Pattern Crime InvestigationsPattern InvestigationUsing Analytical Results for Product DevelopmentCrime SummaryCommonalitiesIncident DetailsPhotosMapContact InformationPurpose of the Finished ProductExample of an Analytical Pattern ProductQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesTactical Crime Analysis and Hot Spots PolicingOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 12IntroductionCrime Hot Spot TheoriesRoutine Activities TheoryCrime Pattern TheoryA Theory of Crime PlacesRoutine Activities TheorySituational Crime Prevention TheoryBroken Windows TheoryCrime Opportunity TheorySocial Disorganization TheoryCrime Pattern TheoryHow Are Hot Spots Identified?Maps and Geographic Information SystemsDifferent Kinds of Maps Generated by GISDot MapLine MapsEllipse and Choropleth MapsGrid Thematic MappingKernel Density EstimationPolygon MapHot StreetsHot AreasStandard Deviation AnalysisGrid Cell Mapping AnalysisKernel Density InterpolationStatistical Testing for Hot SpotsPoint Pattern AnalysisTests for ClusteringGlobal Statistical TestsWhat Is Hot Spots Policing?Crime Prevention through Environmental DesignQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesStrategic Crime AnalysisOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 13IntroductionFocus in Strategic Crime AnalysisLong-Range Perspective of Strategic Crime AnalysisCrime Trends Analyzed by Strategic Crime AnalysisData that Strategic Crime Analysts ExamineQualitative versus Quantitative ResearchQualitative MethodsField ResearchContent AnalysisInterviewsSurveysFocus GroupsEnvironmental AssessmentAfter Identifying Crime Trends, then What?Recommendations for Crime Trend SolutionsUsing the Problem Analysis TriangleFormulating HypothesesFinal ReportWriting and Distributing ReportsFinal Goal of Crime AnalysisQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesUnderstanding Threat Assessment Methodologies and the Role of the AnalystOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 14The Scope of the ProblemThe Usual Response to Mass Shootings and ViolenceRisk Factor ApproachA Threat AssessmentHistory of Threat AssessmentsThe Four-Pronged Assessment ApproachRisk IdentificationWhat We Know about School ShootersIs Violent Media to Blame?The Role of Victims in School Violence IncidentsThe Threat Assessment Strategy as a Management ProcessViolence Prediction and Psychological Constructs of ViolenceApplying the Biopsychosocial Model to Prevent ViolenceUnderstanding the Pathway to Targeted Violence as an Analytical ToolThreat Assessments and the Crime Analyst: Cautionary NoteConclusionQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesAdministrative Crime AnalysisOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 15IntroductionWhy Is It Called Administrative Crime Analysis?Are there Areas of Administrative Crime Analysis that Have Little to Do with Analysis?What Reports Do Administrative Crime Analysts Present?Administrative Crime Analysis: Low-Priority Analysis?How Administrative Crime Analysts Gather DataCrime Mapping and Administrative Crime AnalysisUsing the InternetQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesOutlinePolice Operations Crime AnalysisLearning Objectives for Chapter 16IntroductionWhat Techniques and Methods Are Used by Operations Analysis?What Kinds of Recommendations Do Operations Analysts Make?Examples of RecommendationsQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesV Crime Analysis and the FutureCrime Analysis and the Future of PolicingOutlineLearning Objectives for Chapter 17IntroductionThe Need for Crime AnalystsWhat Makes a Good Crime Analyst?Crime Analyst Qualifications and Job DescriptionsEducation for Crime AnalystsWhere to Go for More Information about Crime Analyst JobsTechnology and the Future of PolicingChallenges to Integrating Crime Analysis into PolicingQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferences