Introduction

Since the first edition of this book was published in 2017, the job of a crime and intelligence analyst in a police department has become even more important. Crime analysts increasingly perform invaluable tasks in many police agencies throughout the United States. Crime analysts work closely with criminal investigation units as well with the police administration to investigate crime and to research and analyze law enforcement data, conduct statistical activities to construct charts and graphs, and carry out statistical studies to assist the operational side of police departments.

This role of the crime analyst also becomes increasingly more complex as the analyst needs to have an excellent grasp of statistical methodologies, the ability to develop working hypotheses based on complex data, and be able to work in close collaboration with law enforcement personnel to spearhead crime prevention and proactive policing strategies.

Given the crucial role that crime analysts play in policing today, this second edition provides an updated introduction to crime and intelligence analysis. In this revised edition, there is one new chapter and updated information in nearly every chapter. Among the features of this edition is a discussion of the Next Generation 911 (NG911) system. Crime analysts are likely to interface with NG911 as this more technologically advanced system is likely to transform 911 into a digital network that is faster, more efficient, more cost-effective and safer for both the public and for law enforcement.

Another feature of this second edition is a new chapter (Chapter 14) that explores the process of threat assessment. With the increasing number of terror attacks in the United States, this chapter will help crime analysts learn how to identify risk factors and early warning signs related to violence. The threat assessment process described in Chapter 14 will give analysts greater capabilities in neutralizing a terrorist risk before a violent incident can occur. This chapter explores the research and intelligence that have been gleaned from past violent events in order to help analysts assist in organizing a threat assessment team to head off violence in schools and other places.

New with this second edition are supplementary materials that are aimed at supporting both students and instructors to ensure success in teaching and learning. An Instructor’s Manual is available for instructors when the book is adopted for a course. This manual is a rich source of information and support that includes the following for each chapter:

  • • Learning Objectives
  • • Chapter Summary
  • • Definitions of Key Terms
  • • Essays on the Discussion Questions
  • • Classroom Activities (which include videos that coordinate with the chapter)
  • • Written Exercises and Activities
  • • Review Questions and Answers
  • • Books and Articles for Further Reading

Also available for instructors is a full set of PowerPoint lecture slides for each chapter and a Test Bank. The Test Bank includes a wide range of multiplechoice questions and true/false questions.

As in the first edition, this second edition emphasizes that crime analysts play a powerful and essential role in twenty-first-century policing; this book is dedicated to helping analysts prepare to do an outstanding job in a police department. The job of crime analyst includes these duties that are covered in this book:

  • • Reviewing all police reports daily with the goal of identifying patterns
  • • Analyzing trends, patterns, and hot spots to let both officers and administrators know about emerging crime in their city or in certain districts
  • • Extracting data from records and asking questions that lead to turning data into useful information
  • • Creating charts, maps, graphs, tables, and other visual products that communicate and transmit useful information to their police departments and to the public

This book’s purpose is to help make sure that the training of future crime analysts is thorough and grounded in the latest information.With this second edition, this is an even more up-to-the-minute textbook intended for use in college classrooms and police academies to train students to be crime analysts. Therefore, Crime and Intelligence Analysis: An Integrated Real-Time Approach (2nd Edition) covers all aspects of what crime analysts and tactical analysts need to know to be successful. It describes the different types of crime analysts, their responsibilities and duties, and how they go about meeting their responsibilities in the best possible way. In addition, this textbook provides an overview of the U.S. criminal justice system as well as the more fundamental areas of crime analysis, including:

  • • Understanding criminal behavior
  • • Conducting temporal analysis of crime patterns
  • • Using spatial analysis to gain a better understanding of crime
  • • Applying research methods to crime analysis
  • • Evaluating data and information to help predict criminal offending and solve criminal cases (including cold cases)
  • • Understanding criminal investigations
  • • Using critical thinking
  • • Assessing and managing terrorist threats

The authors continue their commitment to make this book the most comprehensive textbook for criminal justice instructors to use in teaching students who will eventually end up in real-time crime centers (RTCCs) as crime analysts. By learning about such things as tactical intelligence, intelligence-based policing, data mining, crime mapping and temporal analysis, evaluating the validity of information, and understanding how a criminal investigation is conducted, students completing courses using this book will be skilled enough to step into a tactical analyst role in an RTCC and deal with the kinds of situations that they are likely to encounter on a daily basis.

What You’ll Find in This Book

This book is divided into five parts. Part I offers background on crime and the U.S. criminal justice system. The first three chapters review various fundamentals about the problems of crime in U.S. society, the measurement of crime, and the theories about what causes people to commit criminal acts.

Part II gives a brief history of law enforcement and helps students to look at the big picture related to the history of policing and how far policing and law enforcement have progressed in the past 200 years. Chapter 5 provides an overview of police investigations to help student crime analysts understand more clearly how police officers investigate crimes.

Part III offers four important chapters on intelligence—the lifeblood of both investigators and crime analysts. These chapters explain exactly what intelligence is, how it relates to the work of the crime analyst, how intelligence is collected, and how the crime analyst can analyze intelligence in order to provide the most relevant and important information to detectives and investigators.

Part IV gives an overview of crime analysis, detailing the history and development of crime analysis, while spelling out the different types of crime analysis. There is an emphasis on tactical crime analysis and the duties and responsibilities of the tactical crime analyst. A new chapter, based on the research and experience of Mark J. Concordia, an expert in threat assessment and a counterterrorism investigator for nearly 15 years with the FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force, explores the threat assessment process.

Finally, Part V sums up what has been learned throughout the book, discusses the skills and qualifications needed for crime analysis, and offers some ideas for the future of policing. While, of course, the authors are not prescient, they do suggest that continued advances in technology in our society will continue to have an impact on policing and investigations. Not only will police departments of the future possess the technology to solve crimes, but they will also be more skilled at preventing crimes.

 
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