Questions for Discussion
1 Does the classical theory of criminology still have relevance today?
If so, why? If not, why not?
2 What criminological theories make the most sense to you?
Classical theory: Basic theory of criminology which believes that people have free will and make rational decisions about committing crime.
Criminal personality: This theory suggests that criminal offenders perceive the world in a way that leads them to criminal behavior.
Criminological theory: Theory that attempts to explain why people commit crimes.
Intelligence: Data or information gathered related to criminal activities or problems.
Modus operand!: Criminal offenders method of operation, style, or patterns.
Positivists: The early positivists, such as Cesare Lombroso, considered biological attributes to be the real roots of crime.
Psychoanalysis: Set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories which believe that an individual’s behavior is in part determined by early childhood experiences.
Routine activities theory: Theory of crime causation which explains that crime is dependent on the situation and circumstances.
Study Guide Questions
For questions 1—5, indicate whether the statement is true or false.
- 1 Cesare Beccaria is known as the founder of classical criminology.
- 2 The early positivists, such as Cesare Lombroso, who lived from 1836 to 1909, considered biological attributes to be the real roots of crime.
- 3 In general, all psychological explanations look inside the human mind for the causes of criminal offending.
- 4 More recently, psychologists have linked criminal behavior to a psychological condition called disruptive behavior disorder.
- 5 Sociological explanations of crime look at criminal behaviors as emanating from environmental influences.
- 6 There has been growing research in recent years to show that there is a link between
a Mental illness and criminal behavior
b Poor hygiene and criminal behavior
c Lack of motivation and criminal offending
d Sloth and criminal behavior
7 Edwin Sutherland suggested that delinquent behavior is a Inborn and not learned later in life
b Learned in much the same way that people learn other things
c All about exposure to the media
d Related to inadequate parenting
8 Travis Hirschi’s control theory emphasizes
a Learning and reinforcement
b That parents are the reason for all delinquency and crime
c Social bonds
d Children’s relationships to friends
9 In the theory proposed by Ronald Clarke and Derek Cornish, delinquents and adult criminal offenders are
a Impulsive people who don’t think
b Irrational individuals who never make conscious decisions
c People who never evaluate information
d Rational people who make calculated choices about what they are going to do
10 The standard model of law enforcement is a
a Reactive form of policing
b Form of policing that emphasizes fixing broken windows
c Style of policing related to the SARA approach
d Proactive form of policing
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