Crime Mapping and Administrative Crime Analysis

As Santos (2013) points out, crime mapping (which was discussed in Chapter 12) is useful in all forms of crime analysis. It does, in fact, play an important role in administrative crime analysis, as it often helps to convey essential information to the media and the public. A police department could—as many police agencies these days do—post maps on their website to show areas of crime.

Using geographic information system (GIS) technology, the crime analyst can not only transform information into actionable intelligence, but also educate the public with visual information to clarify crime concerns and enlist community action.

Using the Internet

Like the rest of society, police departments must make use of the Internet and social media these days to communicate with the community. While there may be some disadvantages to using the Internet to communicate with the public (it is impersonal and requires resources to keep updated), the benefits, many police departments have decided, outweigh any potential drawbacks.

Police departments, with presentations developed by crime analysts, can do much to communicate important information to citizens. This kind of information dissemination can include lists or maps of criminal activities in particular neighborhoods, recommendations for public safety, current or ongoing dangerous situations, or emergency alerts.

Below is an example of an administrative crime analysis report.This report was prepared for the administration of a police department that wanted more information about the use of tasers by the officers in the department in order to properly respond to questions from the city council about taser usage.

Taser Usage Study

PD Analysis Center

The center studied data regarding Taser Usage, to include:

  • • The ratio ofTaser deployments to Tasers in service
  • • Level of resistance by the subject
  • • Areas of the body hit
  • • Hospitalization of subjects

Data and methods:

To accomplish the analysis, data was drawn from two sources.

  • • Internal Affairs reports related to Subject Resistance Reports
  • • The original Subject Resistance Reports logged into the RMS system

Also included is the number ofTasers that were in service, and their issued dates.

Tasers in service, and Taser deployments per year:

Table I Tasers in service by year

Year

Taser model

Number in service

2015

X2

218

2014

X2

235

2013

X2

82

2012

X26

90

2011

X26

80

2010

X26

68

2009

M26 - X26

60

2008

M26

48

2007

M26

59

2006

M26

58

2005

M26

48

2004

M26

35

2003

M26

35

Type of subject action:

Table 2 Subject resistance actions

No

res

Verbal

13.1%

86.9%

Passive

81.5%

18.5%

Active

5.6%

94.4%

Armed

81.1%

18.9%

Area of the body in which subjects were hit:

The back torso was the most common area of the body hit by Taser

deployments.

Table 3 Location of Taser strikes on subjects, if any

No

res

Upper limb

90.0%

2.2%

Lower limb

69.0%

18.6%

Back torso

47.3%

38.2%

Front torso

44.3%

35.2%

Missed subject

89.0%

4.5%

Taser use was threatened

89.0%

1.6%

Hospitalization:

Table 4 Hospitalization, compared to injuries suffered during the subject

resistance actions

Not injured

Injured

Admitted to hospital

39

45

Deceased

0

2

N/A

0

0

Not treated

22

0

Refused

15

8

Treated & released by hospital

168

128

Unknown

6

5

Totals

250

188

This administrative crime analysis report provides information about taser usage by police officers which may help to lead to administrative policy decisions.

In Chapter 16, you will learn about a final type of crime analysis: police operations crime analysis.

Questions for Discussion

  • 1 Why do you think administrative crime analysis has been considered low-priority crime analysis? Should it be considered low priority? Why or why not?
  • 2 How would you go about gathering and analyzing research if you, as a crime analyst, were assigned to do a presentation on whether your police agency should request military equipment from the Department of Defense?

Important Terms

Administrative crime analysis: Presentation of interesting findings of crime research and analysis based on legal, political, and practical concerns to inform audiences within the police administration, the city government or the city council, as well as citizens.

Focus groups: Sometimes referred to as group interviews, focus groups are guided conversations in which an analyst meets with a collection of similarly situated, but usually unrelated persons for purposes of uncovering information about a topic.

Interviews: Typically structured conversations that researchers have with individuals to learn more about crime problems or crime trends.

Qualitative research: Qualitative research methods, as opposed to quantitative research, provide more emphasis on interpretation and usually look at contexts, the environment, and the people involved in a crime problem.

Study Guide Questions

For questions 1—4, indicate whether the statement is true or false.

1 The reality of the profession of crime analyst is that analysts often do many things unrelated to analysis.

  • 2 The type of report that the administrative crime analyst will produce is often determined by the audience for which the report or presentation is intended.
  • 3 Administrative crime analysis is all about solving crimes or determining crime trends.
  • 4 Like other crime analysts, administrative crime analysts may start a project by reviewing police data.
  • 5 Often, the type of information that is presented by administrative crime analysts represents just the tip of the iceberg of all the work and analysis that has previously been done.This is because their presentations are

a Short

b Just for citizens

c Quickly done

d Summaries and intended to give the highlights of research and analysis

6 Qualitative research methods are used in administrative crime

analysis.

a Never

b Seldom

c Often

d Always

7 The primary purpose of administrative crime analysis might be said to be to

a Inform audiences

b Detect crime patterns

c Solve violent crimes

d Locate hot spots

References

Boba, R. (2001). Introductory Guide to Crime Analysis and Mapping. Washington, DC: Community Oriented Policing Office, U.S. Department ofjustice. Retrieved from: https://cops.usdoj.gov/ric/Publications/cops-w0273-pub.pdf

Bruce, C.W. (2008). Crime analysis publications. In S.L. Gwinn, C. Bruce,J.P. Cooper, and S.R. Hick (eds.), Exploring Crime Analysis: Reading on Essential Skills. Overland Park, KS: International Association of Crime Analysts, pp. 342—363.

International Association of Crime Analysts. (2014). Definition and Types of Crime Analysis: Standards, Methods (¿Technology Methods. White Paper 2014-02. Overland Park, KS: International Association of Crime Analysts.

Santos, R.B. (2013). Crime Analysis with Crime Mapping.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Stevenson, M.R. (2013). Crime Analysis: The History and Development of a Discipline (Undergraduate honors thesis, Western Oregon University). Digital commons@WOU. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/ viewcontent. cgi?article= 1076&context=honors_theses

Chapter 16

Pol ice Operations Crime Analysis

Outline

1 What is police operations crime analysis?

 
Source
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