Clusters, Digital Transformation and Regional Development in Germany


I. Setting the StageIntroduction—Background of the Research and the Methodology AdoptedOpening Remarks and Context of the StudyConceptual Framework and Research DesignMethodology AdoptedContribution to Current ResearchIndustry 4.0 and the Contribution of Clusters for the Advancing I4.0The Fourth Industrial Revolution (I4.0)Clusters Potential Role in I4.0II. On the Role of Knowledge, Business Relations and Policy in Making Cluster Relevant for Industry 4.0Intelligent Technical Systems: OstWestfalen-Lippe—It’s OWL ClusterIt’s OWL Facts and FiguresKnowledge Generation and Technology TransferDual Strategy—A Business EcosystemInstitutions and Policy—Governance of RelationshipsDeveloping a Conceptual ModelInternational Relations and OpennessCluster Importance for Small and Medium EnterprisesProvision of ICs, RV and Stretching Processes in It’s OWLIndustrial CommonsRelated VarietyStretching—Blending and HubbingIII. Cluster as Provider of Industrial Commons and Related Variety Undergoing the Stretching ProcessHAv Hamburg Aviation ClusterRegional Specialisation and Cluster ProfileCluster Structure and ActivitiesFindings and DiscussionProvision of ICs in HAv Basic InfrastructureThe Uniqueness of Aviation and Limited Implementation of 14.0Asymmetry, Legitimacy and NetworkingTime DecompressionFuture Skills and CompetencesCultivating CommonsDark SidesOn a Final NoteThe Importance of RV in HAvCluster CompositionComplex Co-CreationBalancing Diversification and SpecialisationBranching and Spin-OutsOn a Final NoteBlending Processes in HAv Bridging and Cross-ClusteringProblem-Solving and the Universal Nature of 14.0ComplementarityOn a Final NoteHubbing Strategy of HAvMulti-Scalarity of ExpansionRegion Plugged Into Global NetworksSMEs Liability of Unconnectedness and EmancipationNature of International Relations and 1.40SustainabilityOn a Final NoteSummary of the ResultsOverviewI4.0 and Cluster Co-RelationsICs, RV and Stretching in HAvPeculiarities of Cluster and I4.0 Relations Diagnosed in HAvDigital Transformation and Cluster EvolutionIV. Final WordConclusionsCluster and I4.0 Relations Framed in ICs, RV and StretchingThe Value Added of Presented Study