The Cultural Legacies of Chinese Schools in Singapore and Malaysia

BackgroundPower and structurePast and futureMultitude and diversityCulture and memoryHeritage and resilienceI. Power structure of education: Issues and conceptualizationQuestioning official knowledge: On the state and the politics of knowledgeIntroductionThinking politicallyHegemony and the stateThe state and the production of public knowledgeThe state and identityThe complexities of responses to official knowledgeConclusionNotesBibliographyCulture, identity, and education policy: An interview with Michael W. Apple in SingaporeThe challenge of preserving heritage values of Chinese Schools in SingaporeBackgroundCultural memory and cultural identityArchitecture as tangible heritage of the former huaxiaoIntangible heritage in huaxiaoCultural memory and social capitalConclusionNotesBibliographyII. Role of Chinese community in education: From colonialism to new nationsChinese community and leaders’ sponsorship for Singapore schools: Case studies of the Chinese High School and Raffles InstitutionIntroductionThe founding and sponsors of The Chinese High SchoolThe Chinese community and The Chinese High SchoolContributions of Chinese leaders to the CHSThe Chinese element in the development of Raffles InstitutionThe founding and history of Raffles InstitutionContributions of Chinese leaders towards RafflesInstitution: organisations and individualsConclusionNotesBibliographyChinese schools and the development of adult education in Singapore: 1951-1957IntroductionAdult Chinese classes offeredAdult English and Malay classes offeredClasses offered in 1957ConclusionNotesBibliographyBetween adherence and autonomy: The evolution of Chinese texts in SingaporeTransplanting and grafting: early attempts at local Chinese literature textbooksIndependence: the new trend in the editing of Singapore Chinese literature textbooksConclusionNotesBibliographyIII. Chinese education in a multiethnic society: Malaysia experienceChinese schools in Malaysia: Between ethnic aspirations and the challenges of forging a national educationIntroductionExisting literatureBackgroundPost-war developmentTowards independenceEducation Act 1961 and its aftermathThe ICSS and their reformNon-Chinese enrolment in Chinese primary schoolsSurvival of the Chinese schools in the face of criticismConcluding remarksNotesBibliographyChinese education and cultural resilience: The case of the Chinese educationists in MalaysiaIntroductionChinese primary schoolsIndependent Chinese secondary schoolsMerdeka University and New Era University CollegeConclusionBibliographyThe developmental trend and increasing enrolment of Non-Chinese students in Malaysia’s Chinese primary schools: Challenges and problems (1998-2018)PrefaceDevelopmental challenges faced by Chinese primary schools (1990s-2008): the problem of building new Chinese primary schoolsThe current developmental trend of Chinese primary schools (SJK(C)s)The increasing number of Non-Chinese students and SJK(C)s without Chinese students: problems and challengesConclusionNotesBibliographyIV. Rediscovering Chinese schools: Cultural memory and legacyFundraising activities as collective memory: Construction of school identity in Anglican High SchoolIntroduction: Anglican High School as a SAP SchoolLiterature reviewMaterials consultedProfile of respondentsFundraising and construction of identitySchool founding to the 1970s: fundraising for the construction of the Lee Kuo Chuan Stadiums-1990s: funfair and charity performancesFrom the millennium onwards: the combination of charity walks and funfairsConclusion and reflectionNotesBibliographyAmission in the wilderness: Situating Chineseness in bilingual education at Maris Stella HighIntroduction: Maris Stella as a Chinese-medium schoolHeritage of a Chinese mission schoolRemembering the founder of the schoolA beacon of hope in the wildernessBilingualism in Maris Stella as a SAP schoolBuilding characterCultural activities in the Huaxiao tradition?Learning Chinese culture, then and nowConclusionNotesBibliographyChanges of heritage values and cultures in Chinese schools: A case study of Dunman High SchoolIntroductionMethodologyParticipants and focus groupSurvey methods and interview procedureResults and discussionSummary of sun'ey results and discussionSummary of interview findings and discussionAnalysis: lack of identification with school cultureConclusionNotesBibliographyReviewing the inseparable relationship between Singapore’s Chinese-education reform and its Chinese scar literatureEach Chinese character is a seedMetaphor of book-burning of two 16-year-old SingaporeansCultural backbone and cultural outlook of the writersConclusionNotesBibliography
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