WWH Analysis Model of Macro Performance

The larger the size of a team, the more important it is for leaders to analyze and improve the overall performance of the whole team from the macro perspective. The success of small-team leadership depends mainly on leaders’ refined management of individual subordinates, whereas the success of large-team leadership is largely determined by leaders’ efforts in the improvement of macro performance. Leaders can analyze and evaluate the overall performance and competitiveness of their teams from three perspectives, which are why, what and how (WWH).

  • • The first perspective is WHY—Why does our team exist? Does our team have common visions, common values and common commitments which are understood, accepted and shared by all the members?
  • • The second perspective is WHAT—What do we do together? Is each member of the team clear about his/her key responsibilities, job specifications, working procedures and behavioral standards?
  • • The third perspective is HOW—How are we related to each other? Do members of the team communicate and interact with each other smoothly? Has interpersonal synergy or mutual trust been built and enhanced inside the team?

These three perspectives can also be named as the WWH analytical model of macro performance (Figure 8.1). Indirect leaders should learn to analyze and evaluate the macro performance of their teams with the help of WWH model.


Three perspectives on macro performance.


Evaluation Form of the Macro Performance of Your Team











Evaluation Form of the Macro Performance of Your Team

Please evaluate the performance of your team based on the following descriptions. According to the rating scale below, please write down the answer on the line ahead of each description (Table 8.3).

1. Why does our team exist?

_Team members share a common vision.

_Team members have similar understanding in the common

vision of our team.

_Team members all accept the overall strategies of our team.

_Team members know their own influence on the future of

our team.

_Team members can clearly describe and deeply understand the

values of our team.

_Team members live up to the values of our team and insist that

others do the same.

_The goals of future development are very clear to members of

our team.

_Team members are committed to the accomplishment of

common goals.

2. What do we do together?

_There are working procedures understood and followed by

team members.

_Working procedures are streamlined, specified and


_The roles and responsibilities of team members are clearly


_Members abide by the collaborative mechanisms of our


_Courses of action and behavioral guidelines are available to

improve efficiency.

_Authorities, responsibilities and interests of team members are

clearly defined.

_Resources are allocated efficiently and fairly to support the

work of team members.

3. How are we related to each other?

_There is mutual trust between team members.

_The working environment is active and friendly within the


_Team members are supportive to each other at work.

_Team members recognize the contribution of others to the


_Team members listen to others’ opinions and freely express

their viewpoints.

_Team members handle conflicts effectively in a win-win way.

_Team members have common interests, common habits and

common hobbies.

Three Key Roles of Indirect Leaders

A mid-year management salon was convened with the attendance of ten regional sales managers of FP Company at a resort to promote their understanding of leadership. There was a hot debate between the participants on a question raised by Professor Hanks, an expert of management. The question seemed quite simple. What role should you play in your team? “I am a sales champion so I can help my salespeople by solving problems they are faced with in the selling process. Therefore, I believe that my expertise in sales is critical to the success of a sales manager,” said Lawrence.

Adam raised his own viewpoint:

Regional managers are the middle-level executives of our company, so “maintaining stability” is our main responsibility. We shall ensure that everything is in order and on the right track. My efforts in maintaining stability are highly valued by my boss.

“I don’t agree with either of you. I believe that the essential role that a regional manager should play is to show team members clear vision, direction and course of action,” said Bryant in a different opinion. Bradley insisted that he would spend more time on formulating rules, regulations and working standards for team members to follow. Rule of man should be replaced by rule of law, he added. Bill, Bradleys good friend, held on to his own opinion that regional managers should be like patriarchs who could bind members together and improve interpersonal synergy in their teams.

Professor Hanks expressed his thankfulness to everyone and said:

Your understanding of the main responsibilities of a regional sales manager exhibits the role you are playing in your team as a leader. Totally, there are five leadership roles which include expert, manager, pioneer, architect and coach. Lawrence attaches great importance to the role of expert while Adam pays much attention to the role of manager. Bryant considers the role of pioneer to be most important and Bradley insists on playing the role of architect. Finally, patriarch in the eyes of Bill equals to the leadership role of coach.

In this case, Professor Hanks summarized five roles leaders usually play in their teams. Different roles exhibit different behaviors and have different contributions to the whole team, which is described in Table 8.4.

There are one-to-one correspondences between three of the five leadership roles and three perspectives of the WWH analytical model of macroperformance. Obviously, the role of pioneer corresponds to the perspective of Why (why does our team exist). The role of architect matches the perspective of What (what do we do together) and the role of coach is closely linked to the perspective of How (how are we related to each other). It is clear that role of pioneer, role of architect and role of coach are just the three key leadership roles which should be strengthened and enhanced by indirect leaders to improve the macro performances of their teams (Figure 8.2).

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