Appendix A. Company A: Inductive Coding Tree

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

А1

Entrepreneurial vision as competitive

advantage. Entrepreneur’- s experience a net knowledge of the relevant

field. Entrepreneur as the driving force behind the startup’s success. Firsthand customer experience through entrepreneur use of the system in her trainings. Leadership abilities. Ownership and risk taking. Entrepreneur as a brand name.

Entrepreneurial

advantage

The value proposition

A2

First educational technology company not only in the country but in the region. Need fulfilment of the customer.

First mover advantage

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

АЗ

Market

development. Targeting different segments of customers like students and corporate executives.

Segmentation

A4

Enjoyable learning experience. Customer engagement in product development. Interaction with the customer through chatting. Customer centric processes. Customers treated as friends and not clients. Customers are developed as evangelists who advocate the product.

Customer relationship

A5

Digitization of classroom discussion in an interactive way. Virtual classroom environment. Digitization of case study pedagogy.

Differentiation of e- learning for different segments. From individual learning experience to group learning.

Technology advantage

В1

Flexible system, can be used as offline or online or a mixture of both. Educational institutes a part of the ecosystem. Product visualization through project toolkit. Outside the box thinking. Process innovations and iterations. Radical innovation in the business development domain.

Innovative ecosystem

The value creation and delivery system

В2

Exponential journey instead of linear. Quick response to the institutions after the

Quick response

(Continued)

54 Sabeen Husain Bhatti and Mohammad Muawiz Zia

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

initial launch. Keep on evolving and jumping ahead instead of walking. No patience for delays.

ВЗ

Development of in house development team.

In-house human resources

B4

Quick to change to in house team after a bad experience of outsourced experts. Initial product was tested in different trainings and customer feedback was incorporated. Use of platform for

demonstration during the trainings and workshops.

Experimentation

В5

Well developed technology as a solution to industry and academia problems. Operating at national level due to technological advantage.

Technology push

В6

Universities, students, professors, university administration, НЕС, and industry are focused. Top universities were selected to be a part of the application.

Stakeholder

involvement

С1

Value pricing according to the customer requirements. Focus on financial stability. Higher retention ratios of around 60% of the customers due to product positioning.

Pricing model

Value capture

С2

Initially huge costs were incurred due to own application development

Cost versus product quality

СЗ

State of the art application was developed instead of using ready-made software platforms like Moodle and edXProduct positioning in the market

Product differentiation

(Continued)

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

C4

In-house team for developing state of the art application instead of using customized software.

In-house application development

C5

Initial loss due to huge investment for long-term profits.

Short-term profits for long-term competitive advantage

C6

Application validation through customer use at a price.

Prototype testing

D1

Mixture of offline and online systems. Agile business

processes. Shorter sprints of one to two weeks.

Efficient systems

Lean startup processes

D2

Efficiency increased due to use of state of the art technology. Unique technology development philosophy.

Use of technology

D3

Lean human resources with little collaboration with the third party due to fear of

delays. Development team worked in product development phase only. Different teams for different product phases.

Efficient utilization of human resources

D4

Business incubation center was used for office space. Resources of incubation center were used.

Resource sharing

D5

Agility in pricing decisions. Flexible entrepreneur.

Flexible business model

D6

Minimum awesome product instead of minimum viable product. Evolving application on the basis of customer feedback.

Continuous

improvement

El

Industrial professionals were involved in the application development

Academia-industry

linkages

Challenges and benefits of the startup

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

E2

along with academic professors. Linkages of the industrial professionals to the students through project toolkit. Actual problems of the industry will be solved by the students.

Observation before

Innovator DNA

experimentation.

Strategic level planning. NetworkingTeam build up. User experience through workshops. Risk taker. Learning propensity'. Open to criticism. Storytelling for customer.

Company B: Inductive Coding Tree

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

A1

Idea generated from the market need.

Market pull

The value proposition

A2

Use of geolocation.

Technology support for competitive advantage

A3

Use of Business intelligent system. Own delivery network.

Efficient delivery

A4

Working professionals living in hostels or away from the homes. Within a certain radius area.

Focused customer base

A5

Supplier involvement through profile building of the chefs. Customer involvement through online feedback system for food suppliers and the company. Quick response to the customer on phone.

Stakeholder

involvement

A6

Supplier support

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

Suppliers are allowed to continue their own business in addition to work for the startup.

A7

Focused cost leadership. Less infrastructure required as compared to other food retailers due to technology support.

Strategy and competitive advantage

В1

Technology know how from the previous startup experience.

Entrepreneurial

experience

The value creation and delivery system

B2

Own delivery network through riders. Quick delivery. Food loss and theft saving through use of standard packaging and seals. Report generated every day for monitoring

and improving the order delivery time and cancellation statistics.

Efficient delivery system

ВЗ

Home cooked food used for own consumption. Quality ensured through trainings and focus groups.

Quality focused

В4

Verification done bv riders.

Verification system

В5

Training to riders for verification. Training to the suppliers for quality maintenance.

Trainings

С1

Cost cutting due to resource sharing.

Cost saving due to business model. Technology based solution to choose from nearbv suppliers.

Cost leadership

Value capture

С2

Change to sales based incentives instead of fixed incentives.

Revenue sharing model

СЗ

Branding of the supplier through good customer

Supplier development

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

feedback. Suppliers were trained for costing principles.

C4

Prize money from the business competition for the growth of the startup.

Financial support from the business competitions

C5

Finances obtained from the other startup used as an input to this startup. Profits of the startup were put back into growing the business.

Growth strategy

C6

Bank accounts opening through collaboration.

Use of digital technology for financial management

D1

The contacts used in the last startup were used in app development and maintenance.

Entrepreneurial social capital

Lean startup processes

D2

Support from immediate family. Support from colleagues.

Support in operations

D3

Verification through mobile and check through riders.

Lean verification process

D4

Resource sharing. Infrastructure sharing. Networking. Customer searching

Incubation centers and business competitions

D5

Technical human resource employed in the other startup was being used. Freelancers used for technical issues. Part-time CFO

Lean Human resources

D6

Social media usage for marketing. Training given to suppliers for improved product promotion.

Lean Marketing

El

Only females are chosen as suppliers. Able to work while staying at home. Financial independence. Financial inclusion.

Women empowerment

Challenges and benefits of the startup

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

E2

Trainings provided. Events arranged for suppliers and customers for entertainment and awareness.

Motivational guest speaker sessions.

Stakeholder community build up

ЕЗ

Finances required for growth.

Venture funding

E4

Suppliers resistance to change in sales based incentives instead of fixed bonuses.

Resistance to change in business model

E5

Need the business to upgrade

to business intelligence. In-house technical team required. Technology know-how by the suppliers is low.

Technology

know-how

Company C: Inductive Coding Tree

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

A1

Women

empowerment. Foreign investment need. Fulfilling the market need of acting as an intermediary between the developers and customers.

Business idea

The value proposition

A2

International market focus.

Business strategy

A3

Users increased from 150 to 500 in a short span of time. Very easy processes to register and work with the startup.

Quick market penetration

A4

Only three to four online websites were working in the country when the startup started.

First mover advantage

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

A5

Projects were sourced from past experience with the customers and personal networks. Reliable platform. Trust of the suppliers and customers both. Enhanced knowledge sharing for improved product development.

Customer

relationship

A6

Digitally sound business for better monitoring and management of the projects. Own website was developed using state-of-the- art technology along with the marketing on social media.

Technology

advantage

В1

Flexible business model. Learned from mistakes and made changes.

Efficient business models

The value creation and delivery System

B2

Suppliers were given trainings to do the projects. Trainings were also given on latest technologies like data science, big data, and dot net. Trainings for improved collaboration with the suppliers.

Trainings

ВЗ

Developers were empowered to be their own project managers. Team skills were enhanced.

Team skills

В4

Brand name was changed after changes to business model. Relaunching of the business for improving the customer experience. Business to be shifted to new technologies for better service provision.

Experimentation and changes to business models

В5

Quality maintenance through the in-house team. Focusing on quality instead of just cost.

Quality

В6

Automation procedures in order to give the clients an

Stakeholder

involvement

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

interactive

interface. Collaboration with different governmental agencies for

trainings. Participation in conferences for sharing experience.

Cl

Fixed salary even when the startup was not earning profit. Switched to profit sharing model.

Pricing model

Value capture

C2

Focusing on expansion. Adding maximum clients for increased profits. Putting profits back to the business.

Growth strategy

C3

Use of payment gateways for easy payment process. Secure payment methods for the developers. Payments were made on time.

Payment method

C4

Profit shared with the developers in a fixed ration.

Revenue sharing model

C5

Detailed SOPs for the developers who could not meet the project deadlines.

Detailed SOPs

D1

Started at a small scale with a team of a few software developers.

Efficient systems

Lean startup processes

D2

Some developers were hired but mostly projects were outsourced. Initially team worked as part time. Profit-sharing model was used instead of fixed salary in order to avoid inefficient human resources.

Efficient utilization of human resources

D3

Participated in business competitions and

Code

First-Order Concepts

Second-Order

Concepts

Dimensions and Concepts

conferences for networking and knowledge.

Incubation centers and business competitions

D4

Started with a small office and shifted to a bigger office after a year.

Efficient resource utilization

D5

Change in the revenue sharing mechanism as the startup grew.

Flexible business model

El

Women empowerment through employment opportunities from work at home. Platform provided to software developers to work on international projects.

Women

empowerment

Challenges and benefits of the startup

E2

Inexperienced fresh graduates. Attitude problems of the developers. Lack of human resources for product differentiation.

Skilled human resources issues

E3

Entrepreneurial know how of the bidding process. Risk taking. Future orientation. Decision-making capability.

Entrepreneurial

advantage

E4

Lesser experience. Age factor. Work-family balance.

Challenges

 
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