Measures

A Comparative Empirical Analysis

Sample and Data Collection

After the literature review, based on mainstream literature we have developed a questionnaire about the demographical factors that could affect employees’ perception of talent management (such as tenure in present company or tenure in present position). In addition to this, Talent Management was measured by 26 items taken from Yener et al. (2017), the affective commitment was measured by seven items taken from Allen and Meyer’s (1990) original organizational commitment scale, and turnover intention was measured by a three-item scale adapted from Bozeman and Perrewe (2001) to measure intentions to leave the organization. We collected data from 441 employees, 218 Turkish employees working in Istanbul and 223 Italian employees working in Milan. Our objective was to reveal the significance between talent management, affective commitment, and turnover intentions in the different cultural contexts. The analysis presented gives preliminary but relevant results of a wider analysis aimed at finding out the factors that are similar or different in talent management between two different cultures (Italian and Turkish) and the relevance of talent management, affective commitment, and turnover intention. The survey questionnaires were collected during the period from February to August in 2019.

As a result, our sample is composed of 417 total correct answers from employees in Turkey (205) and Italy (212), excluding 13 incomplete responses for Turkish respondents and 11 incomplete responses for Italian respondents. Regarding age differences, the examination of generational differences among workers is a critical and underdeveloped area of inquiry for management research (Westerman & Yamamura, 2007).

A generational group includes those who share historical or social life experiences, the effects of which are relatively stable over their lives. These experiences influence a person’s feelings toward authority and organizations, what a person values from work, and how a person plans to satisfy those desires (Jurkiewicz & Brown, 1998; Kupperschmidt, 2000). So, in this study, the age differences are searched according to generations. Employees less than 25 years old (generation Z) are 11%; between 25 and 39 years old are 53% (generation Y); between 40 and 54 years old are 31% (generation X), and older than 54 years old are 5% of all respondents.

In order to better evaluate their knowledge about work-life it we also asked position in the company, tenure in this position, tenure in the company and total work experience. Around 43% of all the respondents were managers and higher positions, 43% were specialist and senior specialist and 14% were at the beginning of their work life as assistants. Regarding tenure in the last position 44% of the respondents stated that they were in the same position for less than three years; 25% were in the same position between three years and six years, and 31% were in the same position six years more. In addition to this, regarding the tenure in the present company, 51% of the respondents were in the same company less than three years, 23% between three and six years, and 26% more than six years. In terms of total work experience, 20% of the respondents have less than five years of work experience, 26% between five and ten years, 21% between 10 and 15 years, and 33% of respondents had 15 years and more. Moreover, we also questioned the size of the company as it can be a factor for the implication of talent management. There is some variation in the definition of what is meant by an SME (McAdam & Reid, 2005). The EU defines a medium-sized company as one of fewer than 250 employees, and turnover and balance sheet less than 50 million, a small one as fewer than 50 employees and turnover and balance sheet less than 10 million, and a micro one as fewer than ten employees and turnover and balance sheet less than 2 million (European Commission, 2005). Inevitably, for a given company, these ranges do not exactly correspond, and the number of employees tends to be used as the primary determinant of size (European Commission, 2008). In our study, according to the number of employees, 27% of the respondents work in small-sized companies whose total employee number is 50 or less, 30% in medium-sized companies (total employee number between 50 and 250), and 43% in large-sized companies (total more than 250 employees).

Measures and Descriptive Analysis

The questionnaire was developed through the adaptation of items from previous literature related to talent management, affective commitment, and turnover intention. In management and organization literature, there is an absence of a valid and reliable talent management scale that covers all dimensions as described in the literature. Yener, Gurbuz, and Acar developed a scale in 2017 through a comprehensive literature review between 1999-2016.

The talent management scale (Yener et al., 2017) pertaining to the six subdimensions of talent planning (four items), workplace culture (seven items), talent recruitment and retention (four items), talent development (four items), professional advancement (four items), and rewarding (three items): in total 26 items. To measure affective commitment, we borrowed Allen and Meyer’s (1990) original organizational commitment scale and we adapted only affective commitment subdimension. In the original organizational commitment scale, affective commitment consists of eight items and only one item is excluded in our questionnaire “I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization” as the meaning is confusing with turnover intention. Furthermore, turnover intention is measured by a three-item scale adapted from originally Bozeman and Perrewe (2001). In the original scale, Bozeman and Perrewe measured turnover cognitions using a five- item scale based on the work of Mowday et al. (1984) and Mobley et al. (1978). In our study, we adapted three of them as is adapted by Smith et al. (2012). For all the items that have been used, answers taken through a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (5). Finally, regarding demographics, six questions have been developed. We assume that as is seen in the literature, differences between generations can affect the behavior of the employees in terms of important work outcomes such as organizational commitment and turnover intention (Lub et al., 2012). Moreover, we also questioned the position in the company, tenure in the present position, tenure in the present company, total work experience, and the size of the present company, supposing that all these factors can affect all our variables.

Table 7.1 shows the findings of a descriptive analysis of the variables used in this study (see Table 7.1). The primary finding showed that there were significant mean differences between Italian and Turkish respondents in turnover intentions and there is a very slight difference in talent management and affective commitment. A total score is computed by summing scores for each variable; higher scores indicate greater levels of talent management, affective commitment, and turnover intention (Paulsen & Betz, 2004). More specifically, Italian respondents report higher mean values in turnover intentions, meaning that they have more intentions to leave compared to Turkish employees.

Talent management scale contains 26 items measuring the following subdimensions: talent planning, workplace culture, talent recruitment and retention, talent development, professional advancement, and rewarding (Yener et al., 2017). According to mean differences for the

Table 7.1 Descriptive Statistics of the Constructs between Italy and Turkey

Group Statistics

Nation

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

TM

Turkey

182

3,1631

,96458

,07150

Italy

210

3,0046

,85465

,05898

Talent planning

Turkey

205

3,2122

,93251

,06513

Italy

212

3,0200

,95075

,06530

Workplace culture

Turkey

205

3,1645

1,07214

,07488

Italy

212

3,1139

,96100

,06600

Talent recruitment and retention

Turkey

205

3,1866

1,03179

,07206

Italy

212

2,9788

,91403

,06278

Talent development

Turkey

205

3,3427

1,01518

,07090

Italy

211

2,9905

,95208

,06554

Professional advancement

Turkey

205

3,1927

1,03910

,07257

Italy

211

2,8697

,97386

,06704

Rewarding

Turkey

182

3,1960

1,07659

,07980

Italy

212

2,9324

1,03195

,07087

AC

Turkey

205

3,0789

,54497

,03806

Italy

210

3,0651

,51350

,03544

TOl

Turkey

205

2,8293

,83602

,05839

Italy

211

3,5118

,94070

,06476

following subdimensions—talent planning (0,19), talent recruitment and retention (0,21), professional advancement (0,33), rewarding (0,26)—of their results, Turkish employees have scored higher. The major difference between the two groups was in talent development in which Turkish employees have a higher score (0,35) although it doesn’t differ much from other subdimensions.

Reliability and Validity

In order to analyze our data, a principal component analysis has been carried out. According to Barlett’s test, the result is Sig.000. So that the null hypothesis is accepted thereby the correlation matrix has an identity matrix. Taking this into consideration, this test provides the minimum standard to proceed for factor analysis. The measure of sampling adequacy in all items is greater than (,964) in anti-image matrices, so it showed that all single variables are appropriate for the factor analysis.

The data is sorted by size, the results revealed that there are two factors extracted: workplace culture, talent planning, talent recruitment, and retention constitute one factor, professional advancement, talent development, and rewarding the other. A reliability analysis was carried out for each factor. Both factors indicate a high level of internal consistency: the first one is (,965) and the second one is (,949). Item-total statistics showed that for both factors none of the items needed to be removed. As can be seen in Table 7.2, in the total correlation column for each factor, all items were more than (,30) so that we can say each item correlates with the overall questionnaire. Moreover, Cronbach’s “Alpha if Item Deleted” column showed that all items appeared to be worthy of retention.

 
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