Composite Materials: Properties, Characterization, and Applications


IntroductionApplications of Nanocomposites in the Biomedical DomainApplications of Nanocomposites in the Environmental DomainApplications of Nanocomposites in the Agricultural DomainPerspectives and ConclusionsAcknowledgmentReferences: Biocomposites and NanocompositesIntroductionCategories of Natural Fiber ReinforcementsBast FiberFlaxHempJuteKenafLeaf FiberPineappleAbacaSisalFruit FiberCoirStraw FiberCornWheatSeed FiberCottonKapokCane, Grass, and Reed FiberBambooSugarcane BagasseCategories of BiopolymersBiopolymers Extracted from BiomassPolysaccharidesProteinsLipidsBiopolymers Synthesized from Bio-Derived MonomersPolylactideSuccinic PolymersBio-polyethyleneBio-based Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) and Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate)Bio-based PolyamidesBiopolymers Produced from MicroorganismsPolyhydroxyalkanoatesPoly-glutamic AcidTypes of Nano Filler Reinforcements from Natural FiberCellulose NanocrystalCellulose NanofiberConclusionReferences: Properties of Composite MaterialsIntroductionProperties of Polymer-Matrix CompositesElectrical Properties of Polymer CompositesMechanical Properties of Polymer CompositesProperties of Ceramic-Matrix CompositesElectrical Properties of Ceramic-Matrix CompositesMechanical Properties of Ceramic-Matrix CompositesProperties of Metal-Matrix CompositesProperties of Composite Materials used in Energy Storage/Conversion DevicesConclusionsReferences: Synthesis of a Hybrid Self-Cleaning Coating System for GlassIntroductionMaterials and Experimental ProcedureRaw MaterialsSynthesis of Self-Cleaning CoatingCharacterization and Testing(s)Results and DiscussionWater Contact Angle of CoatingSurface MorphologyAnti-Fog PropertiesSelf-Cleaning AnalysisAdhesion PropertiesSelf-Cleaning OutdoorsConclusion(s)AcknowledgmentsReferences: Experimental and Characterization TechniquesSamples StudiedMaterials UsedSample PreparationThin Film Deposition TechniquesSpin coatingDoctor’s bladeSynthesis of Photoactive Layers Based on Perovskite MaterialsSolution-Processed Two-Step MethodSolution-Processed One-Step MethodSynthesis of Dye and Perovskite-Based Sensitizers and ElectrolytesExtraction of Pigments from Natural Dyes and Preparation of Dye-Sensitizer SolutionsSynthesis of Perovskite-Based SensitizersPreparation of Electrolyte SolutionFabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsCharacterizationsX-Ray DiffractionX-Ray Diffraction Data AnalysisRaman SpectroscopyUV-Visible SpectroscopyScanning Electron Microscope and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopyWorking of an SEM InstrumentEnergy-Dispersive X-ray SpectroscopyBenefits of EDX AnalysisTransmission Electron MicroscopeJ-V CharacteristicsShort Circuit Current (I sc)Open Circuit Voltage (V oc)Maximum Power of Solar Cell (P max)Fill Factor (FF)Efficiency (η)Reference: Electrical characterization of electro-CeramicsIntroductionFerroelectricityCrystal Symmetry of Ferroelectric MaterialsPiezoelectricityTechniques of PiezoelectricityPiezoelectric Parameters and Their RelationsPyroelectricityExperimental Techniques for Characterization of MaterialsStructural CharacterizationX-ray Diffraction (XRD)Utility of the XRD PatternScanning Electron MicroscopyElectron MicroscopeWorking Principle of SEMTransmission Electron MicroscopyDensity MeasurementElectrical CharacterizationDielectric StudiesComplex PermittivityPhasor diagramFrequency Dependence of PermittivityTemperature Dependence of PermittivityMeasurement of Dielectric ParametersElectrical ConductionMechanism of Electrical Conduction in DielectricsIonic ConductivityElectrical ConductivityConductivity MeasurementImpedance StudiesImpedance MeasurementFerroelectric StudiesSawyer–Tower CircuitP-E Hysteresis MeasurementPolingRelaxor FerroelectricsMultiferroic ferroelectricSummaryReferences: Thermal Characterization of CompositesWhat Is Thermal Analysis and Why Is it Essential?Differential Scanning CalorimetryHeat Flux DSCPower Compensation DSCThermogravimetric AnalysisDi-electric AnalysisThermo-mechanical AnalysisDynamic Mechanical AnalysisReferences: Mechanical Characterization Techniques for Composite MaterialsIntroductionMechanical Characterization TechniquesTensile TestingFlexural TestingImpact TestingHardness TestIndustrial Application of Mechanical Characterization TechniquesConclusionsReferences: Humidity Sensor Based on Alum–Fly Ash CompositeIntroductionExperimentalComplex Impedance SpectroscopyResults and DiscussionElectricalComplex Impedance SpectroscopyTemperature Dependence of ConductivityStructuralScanning Electron MicroscopyInfrared SpectroscopyX-Ray DiffractionHumidity SensorConclusionAcknowledgmentReferences: Applications of Graphene-based Composite MaterialsIntroductionPhotonic Applications of Graphene-based CompositesGraphene-Polymer CompositesGraphene-Polymer Composites for Photosensor ApplicationsGraphene-Polymer Composites for Solar Cell ApplicationsGraphene-Polymer Composites for Lighting ApplicationsGraphene-Polymer Composites for Biological ApplicationsGraphene–Quantum Dot CompositesGraphene–Quantum Dot Composites for Photosensor ApplicationsGraphene–Quantum Dot Composites for Solar Cell ApplicationsGraphene–Quantum Dot Composites for Lighting ApplicationsGraphene–Quantum Dot Composites for Biological ApplicationsGraphene Metal Oxide CompositesGraphene–Metal Oxide Composites for Photosensor ApplicationsGraphene–Metal Oxide Composites for Solar Cell ApplicationsGraphene–Metal Oxide Composites for Lighting ApplicationsGraphene–Metal Oxide Composites for Biological ApplicationsFuture Photonics-Related Applications of Graphene-based CompositesConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferences: Low Power Ge-Si0.7 Ge0.3 nJLTFET and pJLTFET Design and Characterization in Sub-20 nm Technology NodeIntroductionDevice Structures and DimensionsSubthreshold Performance ParametersResults and DiscussionTemperature AnalysisConclusionReferences: Influence of Moisture Uptake on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer CompositesIntroductionMoisture Uptake Behavior of Natural FibersModels Used to Study the Moisture Uptake Behavior of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer CompositesEffect of Moisture Uptake on Mechanical PropertiesConclusionReferences: Exploring the Potential of Nanotechnology in Agriculture: Current Research and Future ProspectsIntroductionMultifaceted Role of Nanotools and their Potential ApplicationsNanoparticlesSilicon NanoparticlesCarbon NanoparticlesCopper NanoparticlesSilver NanoparticlesTitanium NanoparticlesQuantum DotsNanorodsNanocapsulesNanomaterials and Nanosystems in Sustainable AgricultureNano PesticidesNanofertilizersNano BiosensorsNano BarcodesNew Vistas of NanotechnologyCellulose NanofibersNanofabricated Xylem VesselsNano-photocatalystsCurrent Scenario of Nanotechnology in IndiaFuture Prospects of Nanotechnology in AgricultureConclusionReferences: Nanostructuring of Materials by Severe Deformation ProcessesIntroductionWhat are Nanostructured Materials?Methods of Severe Plastic DeformationSevere Plastic Deformation TechniquesEqual Channel Angular PressingHigh-Pressure TorsionAccumulative Roll BondingMulti-Axial ForgingFormation of Other Nanostructures by SPD