Applications of Nanocomposites in the Biomedical Domain

Yang and Yang (2020) reported nanocomposites based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) used in hydrogen/methane storage, catalysis, biological imaging, biosensing, drug delivery, etc. MOF nanocomposites in biomedical fields are used as cargo delivery (drugs, nucleic acids, proteins, and dyes) for cancer therapy, and for bioimaging, biosensing, and biocatalysis; they also show antimicrobial properties. Jones et al. (2020) reported chitin and its derivative chitosan, derived from fungi and crustaceans, respectively, for natural wound treatment. They are hemostatic and antibacterial agents and also support cell proliferation and attachment.

Giliopoulos et al. (2020) reported the use of polymer/MOF nanocomposites in various biomedical applications such as drug delivery and imaging applications. Rahimi et al. (2020) reported carbohydrate polymer-based silver nanocomposites for wound healing, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. Rabiee et al. (2020) reported porphyrin-based nanocomposites: porphyrins are the pigments of life and have a role in photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy and also in magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and photoacoustic imaging, drug delivery, healing and repairing of damaged organs, and cancer theranostics. Maeda (2019) reported thermoresponsive hydrogels showing biocompatibility and degradability. They are composed of linear block copolymers of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in biomedical applications such as drug-delivery systems, and in regeneration medicine. Kefeni et al. (2020) reported the biomedical applications and toxicity of spinel ferrite nanoparticles, which are used for the diagnosis and treatment of tumor cells. Wang et al. (2020) reported new possibilities for the construction of glucose-oxidase-based nanocomposites for multimodal synergistic cancer therapy. Glucose oxidase can react with intracellular glucose and oxygen (O,) to produce hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid; cancer cells’ source of glucose and checks cell proliferation and is recognized as an endogenous oxido-reductase for cancer starvation therapy by increasing hypoxia and acidity. Renu et al. (2020) reported mediated silver/poly-D,L-PLGA nanocomposites extracted from plants for functions such as imaging, biosensors, diagnosis, disease treatment, and antimicrobial-based wound healing. Zhong et al. (2019) reported using MOFs to fabricate polymeric nanocomposites as innovative nanocarriers like dendrimers and mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

Sharma et al. (2019) reported ZnO-based nanocomposites for biomedical applications toward the development of vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapeutics. Yan et al. (2019) reported layered double hydroxide nanostructures for a range of biomedical applications. Fan et al. (2019) reported graphene quantum dot nanocomposites for cancer treatment. Ahmed et al. (2019) reported chitosan nanoparticles as nanostructures of chitosan biopolymer, used in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, gene delivery, antimicrobial agents against bacteria, fungi, and viral pathogens, in food preservation, as immunomodulatory agents, and in aquaculture and fish farming. Darabdhara et al. (2019) reported the preparation of silver and gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites for applications in biomedical (drug delivery and photothermal therapy) and biosensing domains. Qi et al. (2019) reported nanostructured calcium phosphates (NCaPs) as nanocarriers for drug/gene/protein delivery due to their high specific surface area, pH-responsive degradability, high drug/gene/protein loading capacity, and sustained release performance. NCaPs formed from biomolecule/CaP nanocomposites are used in nanomedicine and tissue engineering. Shojaeiarani et al. (2019) reported cellulose nanocrystal hydrogels with high hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks, used in biomedical, biosensing, and wastewater treatment applications.

Barrios et al. (2019) reported nanomaterial-based aerogels used in lithium-ion batteries, environmental remediation, energy storage, controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biosensing. Castillo and Vallet-Regi (2019) described mesoporous silica nanocomposite used in biomedical and possible biosafety. Simon et al. (2019) reported CNTs as nanocomposite materials for biomedical applications such as diagnostics, tissue engineering, or targeted drug delivery. Graphene is a 2-D nanomaterial with mechanical, optical, electronic, thermal, and electrochemical properties. Graphene oxide and rGO are utilized in the food industry, environmental monitoring, and biomedical fields. Taniselass et al. (2019) reported the detection performances of graphene-based electrochemical biosensors for monitoring biomarkers of non-communicable diseases. Bhat et al. (2019) reported cellulose, a renewable natural fiber, i.e., a ubiquitous and renewable biopolymer resource, as having a broad range of medical applications: tissue engineering, cardiovascular surgery, dental, pharmaceuticals, veterinary, adhesion barriers, and skin therapy. Yadav et al. (2019) reported MoS2-based nanocomposites for applications in sensing, catalysis, therapy, and imaging, drug delivery, gene delivery, phototherapy, combined therapy, bioimaging, theranostics, biosensing, and having potential uses in nanomedicine.

Shin and Choi (2018) reported waterborne polyurethane nanocomposite for biomedical applications. Raza et al. (2018) reported redox-responsive nanocarriers as tumor-targeted drug-delivery systems. Zhang et al. (2019) reported DNA- functionalized nanoparticle technology for several biological and biomedical applications such as cell imaging, cancer therapy, and bioanalytical detection. Vashist et al. (2018) reported CNT-based hybrid hydrogels for biomedical applications for skeletal muscles and cardiac and neural cells, and also diverse applications in regenerative medicines, tissue engineering, drug-delivery devices, implantable devices, biosensing, and biorobotics. Cardoso et al. (2018) reported biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles in areas such as hyperthermia, drug release, tissue engineering, theranostics, and lab-on-a-chip. Freag and Elzoghby (2018) reported hybrid protein inorganic nanoparticles for different biomedical applications including bone and cartilage regeneration, imaging tissues, development of antithrombo- genic implant biomaterials, and antibacterial wound dressing. Li et al. (2019) reported intelligent polymeric nanogels for the application of stimuli-responsive drug delivery and controlled drug release for activatable theranostics. Yang et al. (2019) reported multifunctional nanocomposite materials or cysteine-rich protein-based biomedical materials such as protein-metal nanohybrids, gold nanoparticle-protein agglomerates, protein-based nanoparticles, and hydrogels for applications in tumor-targeted drug delivery and diagnostics. Ahmad et al. (2017) reported the polyfunctional nature of chitosan and showed it to have antibacterial, mucoadhesive, nontoxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible properties. Chitosan-based self-assembled nanocomposites are used for biomedical applications, specifically in tissue engineering, drug and gene delivery, wound healing, and bioimaging. Wu et al. (2017) reported the use of enzymes as biocatalytic nanocomposites, which act as antimicrobial agents and have been proved to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Gaaz et al. (2017) reported nanotubular clay minerals, composed of aluminosilicate naturally structured in layers known as halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), in biomedical applications. Dykman and Khlebtsov (2016) reported multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Trache et al. (2017) reported cellulose nanocrystals, bio-based nanoscale materials for applications in fields such as biomedical, pharmaceuticals, electronics, barrier films, nanocomposites, membranes, supercapacitors, etc. Dziadek et al. (2017) reported biodegradable polymer composites with ceramic fillers for medical applications; e.g., silica nanocomposites, wollastonite as a composite modifier, and calcium phosphate ceramics, namely hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, and biphasic calcium phosphate. Motealleh and Kehr(2017) reported nanocomposite hydrogels, organic-inorganic hybrid materials for biomedical applications. Jalili et al. (2016) reported smart thermoresponsive magnetic hydrogels for a range of biomedical applications like therapeutic drug delivery, bioimaging, and regenerative engineering.

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biopolymer used in traditional desserts and as a gelling, stabilizing, and thickening agent in the food industry. It is an interesting biocompatible nanomaterial for biomedical applications such as artificial skin, artificial blood vessels and microvessels, and wound dressing. Some examples are BC/colla- gen. BC/gelatin, ВС/fibroin, and BC/chitosan. Ullah et al. (2016) reported BC immobilization of enzymes, bacteria, and fungi, and its use in tissue engineering; heart valve prosthesis; artificial blood vessels, bone, cartilage, cornea, and skin; and dental root treatment.

Deepthi et al. (2016) reported the use of chitin- and chitosan-based nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Govindhan et al. (2016) reported nanostruc- tured Pt-based materials (electrochemical sensors) for the detection of NO in neuroscience applications. They also utilized nanostructured Pt-based electrode materials such as nanoporous Pt, Pt and PtAu nanoparticles, PtAu nanoparticle/rGO, and PtW nanoparticle/rGO-ionic liquid nanocomposites for the detection of NO in biological and medical applications. Zare and Shabani (2016) reported polymer/ metal nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Gaaz et al. (2015) reported polyvinyl alcohol-HNT nanocomposites for medicinal and biomedical use such as wound dressings, drug delivery, targeted-tissue transportation systems, and soft biomaterial implants. Bolocan et al. (2015) reported three main types of gold dendritic structures (gold-dendrimer nanocomposites, dendrimer-entrapped nanoparticles, and gold monocrystalline dendritic growths) for drug-delivery systems. Gold nanoparticles, due to their optical properties and quantum size effect, are used in sensing, photodynamic therapy, therapeutic agent delivery, and diagnostics.

John et al. (2015) reported polymer block polypeptides and polymer-conjugated hybrid materials for various stimuli-responsive drug and gene delivery applications. Choi et al. (2015) reported nanostructured biomaterial coatings for biomedical and dental clinical applications. Zhou et al. (2014) reported multifunctional magneto- plasmonic (Au-FexOy) nanomaterials for biomedical applications such as biosensors, bioseparation, multimodal imaging, and therapeutics. Vellayappan et al. (2015) reported multifaceted use of nanocomposites across the globe for cardiovascular grafts and stents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Tan et al. (2013) reported that polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane can act as a scaffold for bioartificial organs, nanoparticles for biomedical applications, and a coating for medical devices. Tang et al. (2011) reported metallodendrimers or den- drimer nanocomposites for biomedical applications such as biomimetic catalysts, imaging contrast agents (especially for MRI imaging), biomedical sensors, and therapeutic agents. Oishi and Nagasaki (2010) reported stimuli-responsive PEG-coated (PEGylated) nanogels used for biomedical applications as smart nanomedicines for cancer diagnostics and therapy. Sana et al. (2016) reported the delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer’s disease in rat brain by attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL/CeO,/HAp). Ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL/CeO,/HAp/ CMC) nanocomposites have also been established.

Cholesterol oxidase/1 -fluoro-2-nitro-4-azidobenzene/octadecanethiol/gold (ChOx/ FNAB/ODT/Au) nanocomposite film, which has been utilized for estimation of cholesterol in solution using a surface plasmon resonance technique, was developed by Arya et al. (2006). Wu et al. (2016) reported alginate/chitosan nanocomposite particles loaded with S-nitrosoglutathione for oral treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sabherwal et al. (2016) reported biofunctionalized carbon nanocomposites - mainly bioreceptor-functionalized nonocomposites - that are able to generate detection systems in clinical/environmental monitoring. Han et al. (2016) reported anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites. These nanocomposites showed stable and strong fluorescence on the introduction of quantum dots for biomedical applications, particularly biodetection. Peng et al. (2016) reported graphene- oxide-based polymer nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Song et al. (2015) reported porous Co nanobead/rGO nanocomposites for glucose sensing, which have become important functional materials in sensors, catalysis, energy conversion, etc. Iordanskii et al. (2016) reported magnetic nanocomposites consisting of polymer matrix and encapsulated functional nanoparticles for controlled drug release. Raj and Prabha (2015) reported cassava starch acetate-polyethylene glycol-gelatin nanocomposites for controlled drug-delivery systems with an anticancer drug.

Wang et al. (2015) reported a luminol electrochemiluminescence sensor strategy based on Ti02/CNT nanocomposites for the detection of glucose using a glassy carbon electrode. Nguyen et al. (2015) reported that multifunctional Ag/Fe,04-chitosan nanocomposites using chitosan as a stabilizing cross-linking agent showed antibacterial property against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and were also used for local hyperthermia treatment of cancers. Mohammed et al. (2016) reported nickel- disulfide-decorated CNT nanocomposites for the detection of the toxic chemical 4-methoxyphenol in environmental and healthcare applications. Filipe et al. (2016) reported Eu,+-doped SiO-,/poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid nanocomposites used as thermal sensors. Afroze et al. (2016) reported hydroxyapatite-functionalized multi- walled CNT (HA/f-MWCNT) nanocomposites used as a biomaterial for the hyperthermia treatment of bone cancer. Yang et al. (2016) reported a pH-sensitive polymer/ lipid nanocomposite for oral colon-targeted drug delivery. Rahn et al. (2016) reported MRI and X-ray imaging of biological tissues with magnetic nanocomposites for cancer treatment. Jafari et al. (2016) reported the anti-inflammatory effect of triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydroxyapatite nanocomposites in the arthritic rat model and suggested it for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Wang et al. (2016) reported super- paramagnetic cobalt ferrite/graphene oxide nanocomposites used for MRI and controlled drug delivery for simultaneous cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy.

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