Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A Guide to Their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management

Document Purpose and ScopeTarget AudienceDocument Structure and OverviewReferencesCyanobacterial ToxinsIntroduction and General ConsiderationsReferencesHepatotoxic Cyclic Peptides – Microcystins and NodularinsChemical StructuresToxicity: Mode of ActionDerivation of Provisional Guideline ValuesProductionProducing CyanobacteriaMicrocystin/Nodularin ProfilesBiosynthesisRegulation of BiosynthesisOccurrence in Water EnvironmentsBioaccumulationEnvironmental FatePartitioning Between Cells and WaterChemical BreakdownBiodegradationReferencesCylindrospermopsinsChemical StructuresToxicity: Mode of ActionDerivation of Provisional Guideline ValuesProductionProducing CyanobacteriaCylindrospermopsin ProfilesBiosynthesisRegulation of BiosynthesisOccurrence in Water EnvironmentsBioaccumulationEnvironmental FatePartitioning Between Cells and WaterChemical BreakdownBiodegradationReferencesAnatoxin-A and AnaloguesChemical StructuresToxicity: Mode of ActionDerivation of Health- Based Reference ValuesProductionProducing CyanobacteriaToxin ProfilesBiosynthesis and RegulationOccurrence in Water EnvironmentsBioaccumulationEnvironmental FatePartitioning Between Cells and WaterChemical BreakdownBiodegradationReferencesSaxitoxins or Paralytic Shellfish PoisonsChemical StructuresToxicity: Mode of ActionDerivation of Guideline ValuesProductionProducing CyanobacteriaToxin ProfilesBiosynthesis and RegulationOccurrence in Water EnvironmentsBioaccumulationEnvironmental FateReferencesAnatoxin-A(S)Chemical StructureToxicity: Mode of ActionDerivation of Guideline Values For Anatoxin-A(S) in WaterProduction, Occurrence and Environmental FateReferencesMarine DermatotoxinsChemical StructuresToxicityIncidents of Human Injury through Marine Cyanobacterial DermatotoxinsBiosynthesis and Occurrence in the EnvironmentReferencesβ-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA)Discrepancies Introduced By Incorrect BMAA AnalysisThe BMAA-Human Neurodegenerative Disease HypothesisALS/PDC Attributed to BMAA versus Other Manifestations of Neurodegenerative DiseasePostulated Human Exposure and BMAA Mechanism of ActionConclusionsReferencesCyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)General Characteristics of Bacterial LPSWhat Is Known About Bioactivity of Cyanobacterial LPS?Methodological Problems of Studies on Cyanobacterial LPSPossible Exposure Routes To Cyanobacterial LPSConclusionsReferencesCyanobacterial Taste and Odour Compounds in WaterChemistry and ToxicityAnalysisProducing OrganismsBiosynthesisGeosmin and MIB Concentrations in Aquatic EnvironmentsRemoval of Geosmin and MIB by Water Treatment ProcessesCo-Occurrence of T&O Compounds and CyanotoxinsReferencesUnspecified Toxicity and Other Cyanobacterial MetabolitesBioactive Metabolites Produced by CyanobacteriaToxicity of Cyanobacteria beyond Known CyanotoxinsReferencesIntroductionCell Types and Cell CharacteristicsMorphology of Multicellular FormsCyanobacterial Pigments and ColoursSecondary Metabolites and CyanotoxinsTaxonomy of CyanobacteriaMajor Cyanobacterial GroupsDescription of Common Toxigenic and Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterial TaxaFilamentous Forms with HeterocytesFilamentous Forms without Heterocytes and AkinetesColonial FormsPicture CreditsReferencesUnderstanding the Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and CyanotoxinsIntroductionWhat Makes Many Planktonic Cyanobacteria Dominant?Nutrient Storage and Nitrogen FixationBuoyancy, Vertical Migration, Surface Scums and Metalimnetic LayersLight HarvestingCarbon Concentrating MechanismsResistance to Grazing and Other LossesOverwintering StrategiesWhere Do Which Cyanobacteria Occur?Planktonic CyanobacteriaBenthic and Tychoplanktonic CyanobacteriaWhich Environmental Factors Favour Cyanobacterial Dominance?The Concept of “Trophic State”NutrientsLight AvailabilityTemperature, Thermal Stratification and MixingHydrodynamics and Waterbody MorphometrypH: Acidity and AlkalinityCan Cyanobacterial Blooms Be Predicted By Models?Models to Predict Surface Blooms and ScumsWill Climate Change Affect Cyanobacterial Blooms?Which Factors Determine Cyanotoxin Concentrations?Composition of Blooms and Cyanotoxin TypesToxin Content in BiomassToxin Concentrations in WaterSpatial Heterogeneity of Toxin ConcentrationsEstimating Cyanotoxin Concentration from Other Limnological ParametersReferencesExposure to Cyanotoxins: Understanding It and Short-Term Interventions to Prevent ItIntroduction and General ConsiderationsDrinking-WaterEvidence of Illness from Exposure to Cyanobacteria in Drinking-WaterExamples of Potentially Hazardous Cyanotoxin Concentrations in Finished Drinking-WaterCase Reports Giving Evidence of Short-Term Chealth Risks from Acute Exposure through Drinking-WaterEpidemiological studies addressing health risks from chronic, low-dose exposure through drinking-waterAssessing the Risk of Exposure to Cyanotoxins through Drinking-Water and Short-Term Responses to OccurrenceDefining National or Regional Cyanotoxin Levels Requiring Action/.2.2 Alert Levels for short-term responses to toxic cyanobacteria in drinking-water suppliesConsiderations for Choosing Parameters to Trigger Alert Levels When Adapting the Framework to Local CircumstancesConsiderations for setting the ALF thresholds and adjusting them to local circumstancesReferencesRecreation and Occupational ActivitiesEvidence of Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Cyanobacteria in Water Used For Recreation or At WorkplacesCase Reports of Short-Term Health Effects from Acute ExposureEpidemiological Studies of Acute Health Risks from Short-Term Recreational ExposureResponses to Presumed Cyanotoxin-Related Acute Illness Following ExposurePathways for Exposure through Recreational or Occupational Water ActivitiesAssessing the Risk of Exposure to Planktonic Cyanotoxins through Recreational or Occupational Activities and Short-Term Responses to OccurrenceDefining National Cyanotoxin Levels That Trigger ActionAlert Levels for Short-Term Responses to Toxic Cyanobacteria in Waterbodies Used For RecreationAssessing Risks from Recreational Exposure to Cyanobacteria on Benthic and Other SurfacesAssessing Risks from Recreational Exposure to Marine Dermatotoxic CyanobacterialResearch to Improve Our Understanding of Recreational ExposureReferencesFoodGeneral Considerations on Risk Assessment and Risk ManagementSources of ExposureMicrocystinsCylindrospermopsinSaxitoxinsAnatoxinsConclusions on exposure via foodAssessing and Managing the Risk of Cyanotoxin Exposure via FoodVerification Monitoring of Cyanotoxin Levels in Food from Aquatic Systems versus Operational MonitoringBalancing Cyanotoxin Risks against the Risk of MalnutritionPublic Awareness and InformationReferencesRenal DialysisAssessing and Controlling the Risk of Cyanotoxin ExposureReferencesCyanobacteria as Dietary SupplementsCyanotoxins Potentially Present in Cyanobacterial Food SupplementsAssessing and Managing the Risk of Cyanotoxin Exposure through Food SupplementsApproaches to Assessing and Controlling the Potential Cyanotoxin HazardsReferencesAssessing and Managing Cyanobacterial Risks in Water Use SystemsIntroductionLevels for Exerting Control over Cyanotoxin Occurrence and ExposureWater Safety Planning As a Framework for Assessing and Managing Cyanobacterial RisksGetting Ready For Assessment and Planning: Forming the TeamDescribing the Water-Use System and Its UsersIdentifying Water Users and Uses (Including Sensitive Subpopulations)Assessing the Risk of Cyanotoxin Occurrence and the System’s Efficacy in Controlling ItCoping with UncertaintyCyanotoxin Risks In Relation To Other Public Health Risks From Exposure to WaterImprovement Planning: Choosing Additional Cyanotoxin Control Measures For System ImprovementMonitoring the Functioning Of Control Measures For Cyanotoxin Management and Developing a Management PlanVerifying That Exposure Is Sufficiently Avoided and Water Quality Targets Are AchievedDocumenting the Planning Process and OutcomesDocumenting Management ProceduresDeveloping Supporting ProgrammesPeriodic Review and RevisionReferencesAssessing and Controlling the Risk of Cyanobacterial Blooms: Nutrient Loads From the CatchmentIntroduction and General ConsiderationsDetermining Targets for Nutrient Concentrations in the WaterbodyDetermining Critical Nutrient Loads To the WaterbodyIdentifying Key Nutrient Sources and Pathways Causing LoadsBackground InformationIdentifying Nutrient Sources and PathwaysNutrient Loads from Wastewater, Stormwater and Commercial WastewaterSourcesPathwaysWhat to look for when compiling an inventory of loads from sewage, stormwater and commercial wastewater sourcesNutrient Loads from Agriculture and Other Fertilised AreasSourcesPathwaysWhat to look for when compiling an inventory of loads from agricultural activitiesNutrient Loads from Aquaculture and FisheriesWhat to look for when including aquaculture and fisheries in the inventory of activities causing nutrient loadsApproaches to Quantifying the Relevance of Sources and PathwaysTier 1: Assessment Using Emission FactorsMunicipalitiesAgricultureTier 2: Assessment Using the Riverine Load ApproachFlow Normalisation to Avoid Misinterpretation of CausalitiesEstimation of Diffuse LoadsTier 3: Pathway-Oriented ApproachTier 4: The Source-Oriented ApproachManaging Nutrient LoadsMeasures to Control Nutrient Loads from Sewage, Stormwater and Commercial WastewaterOperational Monitoring for Control Measures in Wastewater ManagementValidation of control measures in sewage and stormwater managementMeasures to Control Nutrient Loads from Agriculture and Other Fertilised AreasOperational Monitoring of Control Measures in Agriculture and Land Use Involving FertilisationValidation of control measures in agriculture and for land use involving fertilisationMeasures to Control Nutrient Loads from Aquaculture and FisheriesOperational Monitoring of Control Measures in Aquaculture and FisheriesIncluding Climate Change Scenarios When Planning MeasuresReferencesAssessing and Controlling the Risk of Cyanobacterial Blooms: Waterbody ConditionsIntroductionDirect Indication of the Occurrence of (Potentially Toxic) CyanobacteriaAssessing a Waterbody’s Potential for Cyanobacterial BloomsEstimating the Impact of Climate Change on Cyanobacterial Proliferation and BloomsInternal Measures against Cyanobacteria: What, Why and When?Hydrophysical Control of Growth ConditionsArtificial DestratificationManaging River Flow Regimes to Suppress Cyanobacterial GrowthManaging Water Retention Time in Lakes and Reservoirs to Suppress Cyanobacterial GrowthAssessing and Controlling Internal Phosphorus Release from the SedimentsP Reduction by In-Lake Phosphorus Precipitation and CappingP Reduction by Sediment DredgingBinding Phosphorus through Hypolimnetic AerationWithdrawal of P with the Bottom Water (Hypolimnetic Withdrawal)Reducing the P Content of the Waterbody by FlushingBiological Control of CyanobacteriaSuppressing Cyanobacteria through Increasing Grazing Pressure by Fish Stock ManagementEnhancing Competition of Macrophytes against CyanobacteriaIntroducing Barley StrawChemical Control of CyanobacteriaCopper SulphateCopper ChelatesHydrogen PeroxideUltrasonication for Control of CyanobacteriaMeasures to Control the Proliferation of Benthic CyanobacteriaReferencesManaging Cyanotoxin Risks at the Drinking-Water OfftakeIntroductionOptimising the Location and Depth for the OfftakeVertical Variability of Cyanobacterial OccurrenceBalancing Cyanobacterial Risk against Other ContaminantsReleasing Poor-Quality Water DownstreamHorizontal Variability of Cyanobacterial OccurrenceData Collection for Optimising Offtake SitesOperational Monitoring of Control Measures in Raw Water AbstractionValidation of Control Measures For Raw Water OfftakeSediment Passage: Managed Aquifer Recharge via Soil Aquifer Treatment or Pond Infiltration, Slow (Sand) Filtration and Bank FiltrationBackground Information to Assess the Subsurface Conditions Relevant For Performance in Retaining Cells and Dissolved CyanotoxinsDegradation of Microcystin during Bank FiltrationDegradation of Cylindrospermopsin during Bank FiltrationDegradation of Other Cyanotoxins during Bank FiltrationPlanning, Design and Construction of Sediment Passage For Cyanotoxin ControlCritical Aspects of Operation, Maintenance and MonitoringAssessing the Risk of Cyanotoxin Breakthrough Where Drinking-Water is abstracted by Magaged Aquifer Recharge and/or Slow Sand FiltrationOperational Monitoring of Sediment Passage as Control Measure against CyanotoxinsValidation of Control Measures in Sediment PassageReferencesControlling Cyanotoxin Occurrence: Drinking-Water TreatmentIntroductionTreatment Options for Cyanobacteria and Cell-Bound CyanotoxinsPre-OxidationPhysical Separation ProcessesConventional ProcessesMembrane FiltrationAssessing the Risk of Toxin Release and Breakthrough of Cyanobacteria and Cell-Bound ToxinsTreatment Options for Dissolved CyanotoxinsPhysical ProcessesAdsorptionMembrane FiltrationChemical ProcessesChlorineOzoneOther OxidantsBy-Product FormationBiological FiltrationAssessing Efficacy of Treatment Steps in Eliminating Dissolved CyanotoxinsSummary of Treatment Measures for the Removal of Cyanobacteria and Associated CyanotoxinsAfter the Water Treatment Plant – Risks Associated with Treated Water StorageAssessing and Reducing the Risk of Cyanotoxin Breakthrough in Drinking-Water Treatment in the Context of a Water Safety PlanAchievement of Cyanotoxin Guideline ValuesReferencesPlanning Monitoring Programmes for Cyanobacteria and CyanotoxinsIntroduction and General ConsiderationsDesigning a Monitoring ProgrammeCollecting and Analysing Existing KnowledgeDefining the Objective of MonitoringPlanning FieldworkTypes of SamplesWhere to SampleFrequency of Site Inspection and SamplingPersonnel and TrainingPreparative Steps and Pilot PhaseConsiderations for Downstream Analytical ProceduresAd Hoc Sampling following Poisoning EventsSatellite Remote Sensing AnalysesRequired SkillsOperational SatellitesLimitationsFrequency of SamplingApplications for Monitoring ProgrammesRetrospective AssessmentsNear-Real-Time MonitoringSatellite Support of Monitoring ProgrammesData Collection and Secure Data StorageReferencesFieldwork: Site Inspection and SamplingIntroductionPreparative StepsDetermination of Key Hydrophysical ConditionsTurbidityEquipmentProcedureTemperature, Oxygen and pH ProfilesAdditional Parameters Measured On SiteFlow Rate and DischargeOn-Site Inspection and Data CollectionTaking Water SamplesGrab SamplesIntegrated SamplesSampling Bulk MaterialSampling in the Drinking-Water Treatment TrainSample ContainersSediment SamplingSampling of Benthic CyanobacteriaSamples for Molecular AnalysesSafety ConsiderationsQuality Assurance and ControlPermissions and DeclarationsReferencesLaboratory Analyses of Cyanobacteria and Water ChemistryIntroductionHandling and Storage of Water SamplesIdentification of CyanobacteriaQuantification of CyanobacteriaCounting Cyanobacterial CellsSample Concentration by Sedimentation or CentrifugationQuantification of Cyanobacteria Using an Inverted MicroscopeQuantification of Cyanobacteria Using a Standard MicroscopeEstimation of Cyanobacterial Biomass by MicroscopyCyanobacterial Counts and Cell VolumesEstimation of Phytoplankton Biomass Using Chlorophyll-a AnalysisPhytoplankton and Cyanobacteria Quantification by Fluorescence AnalysisRecent Advances and Future Direction in the Phytoplankton and Cyanobacteria Quantification by Fluorescence AnalysisMonitoring Toxigenic Cyanobacteria by Molecular MethodsSampling and Nucleic Acid ExtractionPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) MethodologyDetection of Toxigenic CyanobacteriaEstimates of Cyanobacterial Biomass by Molecular ApproachesSet Up of PCR AssaysLimits of PCR AssaysSequencing of PCR ProductsApplication of PCR-Based Methods in MonitoringIdentifying Toxigenic Cyanobacteria Using High-Throughput SequencingDetermination of Nutrient ConcentrationsAnalysis of PhosphorusAnalysis of NitrateAnalysis of AmmoniumOn-Site Analysis Techniques for NutrientsReferencesLaboratory Analysis of Cyanobacterial Toxins and BioassaysIntroduction and General ConsiderationsSample Handling, Storage and ShippingSafetySample Processing For StorageSample Storage and ShipmentTraceabilityGeneric Methodologies Used In Cyanotoxin AnalysisSample Extraction for AnalysisSolid-Phase Extraction (SPE)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)Selecting an Analytical SystemQuantification of Microcystins and NodularinsExtraction Methods for Microcystins and NodularinsCyanobacterial CellsWater SamplesTissue SamplesQuantification of Microcystins and Nodularins by Biochemical MethodsQuantification by Protein Phosphatase Inhibition AssayImmunoassays for Microcystin and Nodularin DetectionInstrumental Analytical Methods for Microcystins and NodularinsAnalysis of Microcystins and Nodularins by HPLC-PDAAnalysis of Microcystins and Nodularins by LC-MS(MS)Quantification of CylindrospermopsinsExtraction of CylindrospermopsinsCyanobacterial CellsWater SamplesTissue and Urine SamplesQuantification of Cylindrospermopsins by ELISAInstrumental Analytical Methods for CylindrospermopsinsAnalysis of Cylindrospermopsins by HPLC-PDAAnalysis of Cylindrospermopsins by LC-MS(MS)Quantification of AnatoxinsExtraction of AnatoxinsCyanobacterial CellsWater SamplesTissue SamplesQuantification of Anatoxins by ELISAInstrumental Analytical Methods for AnatoxinsAnalysis of Anatoxins by HPLC-PDAAnalysis of Anatoxins by LC-MS(MS)Quantification of SaxitoxinsExtraction of SaxitoxinsCyanobacterial CellsWater SamplesTissue SamplesQuantification of Saxitoxins by Biochemical MethodsQuantification of Saxitoxins by ElisaInstrumental Analytical Methods for SaxitoxinsPrechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence DetectionAnalysis of Saxitoxins by LC-MS/MSDetection and Quantification of Anatoxin-A(S)Methods for Synchronous Detection of Multiple Types of CyanotoxinMultiplex Antibody SystemsMulti-Cyanotoxin Analytical MethodsFuture DevelopmentsBioassays and Their Use in the Survey of Toxic CyanobacteriaInsights into Interpretation of Toxicity ResultsBioassays in the Assessment of Toxic CyanobacteriaNonmammalian BioassaysMouse Bioassayin Vitro Assays for Determining Toxicity and GenotoxicitySummaryReferencesPublic Health Surveillance, Public Communication and ParticipationIntroductionAspects of SurveillanceIncident Response Plans for Cyanobacterial BloomsRoles and Capacities of the Responsible Authority in Incidence ResponsesMonitoringManagement and Control MeasuresRisk CommunicationCommunication Preparedness Before Blooms OccurCommunication during a Cyanotoxin IncidentCommunication after a Cyanotoxin IncidentFollow-Up Assessment of Incident ManagementPublic ParticipationFurther Reading
Next >