Enzymatic Extraction of Bioactive Compounds

The application of enzymes for improved extraction of bioactive compounds without the use of solvents is an attractive proposition. Enzyme pretreatment of raw material normally results in a reduction in extraction time, minimizes usage of solvents and provides increased yield and quality of product (Sowbhagya and Chitra 2010). Decreased solvent use during extraction is particularly important for both regulatory and environmental reasons, providing a “greener” option than traditional nonenzymatic extraction. Enzymes have been successfully used in the extraction of various bioactive compounds. Carotenoids have been extracted from marigold flower skin with the help of enzymes (Dehghan-Shoar et al. 2011). Various enzymes, such as cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases, are often required to disrupt the structural integrity of the plant cell wall, thereby enhancing the extraction efficiency of bioactives from plants. These enzymes hydrolyze cell wall components resulting in an increase in cell wall permeability, leading to higher extraction yields of bioactives. Enzymes have been used to increase flavonoid release from plant material while minimizing the use of solvents and heat (Kaur et al. 2010). Some of the bioactive compounds successfully extracted using the enzyme-assisted process from the plant materials are shown in Table 11.7. One example of the use of an enzyme system is in the processing of pectic polysaccharide for enhancing extraction of an antioxidant (Gan and Latiff 2010). Enzyme-aided extraction of lycopene from tomato tissues using cellulases and pectinases under optimized conditions resulted in a significant increase (20 %) in lycopene yield as against control (Choudhari and Ananthanarayan 2007). An increase in concentrations of phenolic compounds (25.90–39.72 %) and sugars (12–14 g/l) has been reported with the enzyme-assisted extraction from citrus peel and grape pomace (Kammerer et al. 2005). Application of enzymes on grape skin led to an efficient extraction of pigment (anthocyanin) during the vinification process (Munoz 2004). Extraction of lignans (secoisolariciresinol) from flax (Linum usitatissimum)

Table 11.7 Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plants

hulls and whole seeds was improved by using cellulase and β-glucosidase. Both enzyme preparations proved to be effective for extracting secoisolariciresinol (Renouard et al. 2010).

Other Extraction Methods

Use of aqueous cyclodextrins (CD) for recovery of selected bioactive phenolic compounds from grapes and their pomace was evaluated by Ratnasooriya and Rupasinghe (2012). When α, β and γ forms of CD were compared, β-CD was the most effective in recovering stilbenes, flavonols and flavan-3-ols from grape pomace (Ratnasooriya and Rupasinghe 2012).

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