Biological Systematics: History and Theory


PrefaceWhat Is the Natural System?What Is Biological Systematics?The Structure of SystematicsWhat Does Systematics Study?How Does Systematics Study?Why Does Systematics Study?Conceptual History of SystematicsSome Preliminary ConsiderationsHow a Conceptual History of Systematics Can Be WrittenHistory of Systematics as an Evolutionary ProcessMajor Stages of the Conceptual History of SystematicsPrehistory of SystematicsAn Initial Step: Folk SystematicsBecoming Aware of the MethodThe Herbal EpochThe Beginning of Systematics: Scholastic RevolutionMajor FeaturesMajor StagesEmergence of Biological Systematics: Anti-Scholastic RevolutionMajor Non-Scholastic MotivesThe Natural SystematicsThe Origin of Typology“Taxonomic Esotericism”A Step Forward: Evolutionary RevolutionFirst IdeasFirst DebatesA Step Aside: Positivist RevolutionHomage to Metaphysics: Post-Positivist RevolutionSome Philosophical ConsiderationsClassical and Non-Classical ScienceCognitive SituationCognitive TriangleConceptual SpaceConceptual PyramidSome Cognitive RegulatorsBetween Umgebung and UmweltsBetween Holism and ReductionismBetween Realism and NominalismBetween Monism and PluralismKnowledge as an Information ModelThe Logical BasesArgumentation SchemesMethodologies and MethodsScientific Status of Methodologies and MethodsBasic MethodsAn Outline of Taxonomic TheoryTaxonomic Theory as a Quasi-AxiomaticsGeneral and Particular Taxonomic TheoriesBasic Quasi-Axioms and PrinciplesDefining Basic Notions: Two Case StudiesTaxonomic RealityClassification SystemMajor Research Programs in SystematicsThe Phenetic ProgramRational SystematicsThe Onto-Rational ProgramThe Episto-Rational ProgramThe Numerical ProgramMajor FeaturesTwo Basic VersionsBasic ControversiesThe Typological ProgramMajor FeaturesContemporary DevelopmentsThe Biomorphic ProgramThe Biosystematic ProgramThe Phylogenetic ProgramMajor FeaturesEvolutionary TaxonomyCladistic SystematicsThe Evolutionary Ontogenetic Program?Taxonomic PuzzlesBetween Natural and Artificial ClassificationsBetween Taxon and CharacterHierarchies: To Rank or Not to Rank?Between Similarity and KinshipWhat Is the (Arche)Type?Homology, an Unresolved ProblemAn Undiscoverable Essence of Species?