Electrical and Electronic Devices, Circuits and Materials:Design and Applications

MOSFET Design and Its Optimization for Low-Power ApplicationsIntroductionVLSI Design HierarchyMOSFET BasicsNMOS Enhancement Mode MOSFET OperationCompact Models for MOSFETCMOS Technology and ScalingShort Channel EffectsSilicon-on-Insulator (SOI) MOSFETMulti-Gate MOSFETsSilicon Nanowire TransistorsRectangular Surrounding Gate Silicon Nanowire TransistorsJunctionless Cylindrical Surrounding Gate Nanowire TransistorsTunnel Field Effect TransistorsMulti-Gate Tunnel FETsDouble Gate TFETsDual Material Double Gate TFETsDG and DMDG TFETs with SiO[sub(2)]/High-k Stacked Gate-Oxide StructureTri-Gate SOI TFETsHeterojunction Triple Material DG TFETsSummaryReferencesRF/Analog and Linearity Performance Evaluation of a Step-FinFET under Variation in TemperatureIntroductionLiterature SurveyDevice ArchitectureTCAD CalibrationResults and DiscussionTemperature Effect on Transfer CharacteristicsTemperature Effect on RF/Analog CharacteristicsTemperature Effect on Linearity CharacteristicsSummaryAcknowledgmentReferencesIntroductionOverview of FinFETsLow Power SRAM Design ConsiderationsRead Assist TechniquesRead BuffersWrite Assist TechniquesWordline Boost AssistNegative Bitline Write AssistLowering of V[sub(DD)]Raising of V[sub(SS)]Simulation Setup and Measurement TechniquesSRAM Cell OperationMeasurement of Performance Metrics of an SRAM CellRead Access TimeWrite Access TimeHold Static Noise Margin (HSNM)Read Static Noise Margin (RSNM)Write Margin (WM)Read Current to Leakage Current Ratio (IREAD/ILEAK or ION/IOFF)Power ConsumptionSimulation-Based Analysis and DiscussionSimulation of a Conventional 6T SRAM CellSimulation of Read BuffersSimulation of Write Assist TechniquesConclusionReferencesLow-Power Memory Design for IoT-Enabled Systems: Part 2IntroductionBackgroundIoT ArchitectureRole of Memories in IoTMemories for IoT-Enabled SystemsSRAM in IoT SystemsEmbedded Flash and EEPROM Memory in IoT SystemsFloating Gate Flash MemoryProgrammable Single-Poly Embedded NVMSingle-Poly Fully CMOS Embedded EEPROM DevicesEmbedded Flash Cells Using CMOS LogicNovel Embedded Flash MemoryThin Film Polymer and Flexible MemoriesMemories for the Intelligent IoTPolymer Resistive RAMs with Flexible SubstrateConclusionReferencesPerformance Evaluation of a Novel Channel Engineered Junctionless Double-Gate MOSFET for Radiation Sensing and Low-Power Circuit ApplicationIntroductionDevice Description & PerformanceImpact of Irradiation Induced Interface Trap Charges (Uniform) on the Drain Current Characteristics at V[sub(DS)] = 0.2 VImpact of Gate Oxide Thickness on the Threshold Voltage Characteristics at V[sub(DS)] = 0.2 VImpact of Gate Oxide Dielectrics on the Threshold Voltage Characteristics at V[sub(DS)] = 0.2 VImpact of Non-Uniform Interface Trap Charge Density on the Drain Current Characteristics at V[sub(DS)] = 0.2 VDC Performance of a Proposed MOSFET-Based CMOS InverterImpact of Supply Voltage on the Power and Delay Characteristics of an Inverter for Fixed Device ParametersImpact of Silicon Thickness, Gate Oxide Thickness, Oxide Barrier Thickness and Channel Doping Concentration on the Power and Delay Characteristics of an Inverter for V[sub(DD)] = 0.5 VConclusionReferencesTechnological Challenges and Solutions to Advanced MOSFETsIntroductionWhy SiNon-Si Materials: Are They Compatible in the Nanoscale Regime?A General Discussion on MOSFETsDiscussion on Some Electrical Parameters Related to MOSFETsInnovative Architectures as Performance BoostersSOI MOSFETsDouble-Gate (DG) MOSFETsGate-All-Around (GAA) MOSFETsDual Material Gate (DMG) MOSFETsQuantum Well/Quantum Wire MOSFETsNovel Material-Based Advanced MOSFETs – A Simulation StudyPractical ChallengesReferencesEnergy Storage Device Fundamentals and TechnologyIntroductionGeneric Energy Storage Device ConceptsCell VoltageEnergy Capacity of a CellCell Charging Rate or C-RateEnergy Density and Specific EnergyPower Density and Specific PowerFunctional Components of an Electrochemical Energy Storage DeviceCorrelation with Power GridEnergy Asset ArbitrageDemand Side ManagementAssurance of ReliabilityInfrastructure's Utility Optimization and Infrastructure's Deployment DefermentPredictability Enhancement of Non-conventional ResourcesCorrelation with E-MobilityTechnological ChallengesReferencesEnergy Storage DevicesIntroduction to Energy Storage DevicesEnergy Storage Devices in ExistenceMolecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage DevicesSmall Molecule Organic Solar CellsPolymer Solar CellsFlexible Energy Storage Devices Using NanomaterialsMaterials for Flexible ElectrodesCarbon NanotubesNanocompositesHybrid NanostructuresFiber-Shaped Energy Storage DevicesFiber-Shaped Solar CellsFiber ElectrodesFiber-Shaped Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsFiber-Shaped Polymer Solar CellsFiber-Shaped SupercapacitorsFiber-Shaped Integrated DevicesSummaryReferencesA Heuristic Approach for Modelling and Control of an Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)IntroductionA Brief Overview of the Automatic Voltage RegulatorOptimizing the Ka and the Phase-MarginUse of the Lag Compensator BlockRate-Feedback MethodUse of PID ControllerProposed MethodologySimulation ResultsConclusionsReferencesReduced-Order Modelling and Control of a Single-Machine Infinite Bus System with the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO)IntroductionA Brief Overview of SMIB SystemsDesign of Power System Stabilizers (PSSs)Related studies on SMIBMethodologyExperimental Results and DiscussionConclusionsReferencesInternet of Things (IoT) with Energy Sector-Challenges and DevelopmentIntroductionArchitecture of IoTInternet of Things (IoT) Energy MarketIoT Enabling TechnologyBig DataCloud ComputingSensorsCommunicationsIoT in Renewable Energy IndustryInternet of Things in the Energy SectorRemote Asset Monitoring and ManagementControl and AutomationA More Distributed GridMore Informed CustomersImproved Grid ManagementConsumer-oriented IoT Energy Devices and CasesSmart MetersDeveloping Intelligent Energy-Efficient Buildings with IoT TechnologyGrid Balancing and ContributionFour Phase of Power GenerationPower GenerationPower TransmissionPower DistributionPower ConsumptionConclusionReferencesAutomatic and Efficient IoT-Based Electric Vehicles and Their Battery Management System: A Short Survey and Future DirectionsIntroductionElectric Vehicles (EVs)Battery ProductionFuel Cell SystemHydrogen Production for Fuel Cell TechnologyHybrid Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (HFCEVs)IoT: A Supplement for Smart Electric VehiclesConclusionsReferencesA Hybrid Approach for Model Order Reduction and Controller Design of Large-Scale Power SystemsIntroductionAn Overview of Load Frequency Control SchemeLFC – Single-Area PlantLFC – Dual-Area PlantProposed Methodology of WorkResults and DiscussionsConclusionsReferencesDay-Ahead Electricity Price Forecasting for Efficient Utility Operation Using Deep Neural Network ApproachIntroductionBackground StudyMethods Adopted in Price ForecastingIntroductionPrice ForecastingForecasting AlgorithmsLinear Regression-Based ModelsBased on Nonlinear HeuristicsDeep Learning-Based ModelsConclusionDay-Ahead Price Forecasting Using Deep Neural NetworkIntroductionTechnique ProposedDeep Recurrent Neural Network (DRNN)Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM)ConclusionResultsIntroductionCase StudyConclusionReferencesMEMS Devices and Thin Film-Based Sensor ApplicationsIntroductionMotivation and BackgroundMEMS Devices: Sensors and ActuatorsEnergy Domains and TransducerMicro-Electromechanical System (MEMS) DevelopmentPhotolithographySuperficial Cleaning of WaferBarrier Oxide Layer FormationDeposit of Photoresist (Spin Coating)Soft BakePhotomask AlignExposureDevelopHard BakePattern TransferStrippingWafer Cleaning and ContaminantsRole of Thin Films in SensorTypes of Thin Film SensorCategorization of Thin Film DepositionThin Film Deposition ProcessesDeposition Overview for MEMSTechnological Development in the Field of Thin FilmsFuture Perspective of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)SummaryReferencesStructural, Optical, and Dielectric Properties of Ba-Modified SrSnO3 for Electrical Device ApplicationIntroductionExperimental ProcedureCharacterization TechniquesResults and DiscussionsPhase Determination Using X-ray Diffraction (XRD)Determination of Crystallite SizeStudy of Optical PropertiesDielectric PropertiesConclusionsAcknowledgmentReferencesFabrication and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Lead Sulphide (PbS) Thin Films on Fabric for Flexible Photodetector ApplicationIntroductionExperimentalBall MillingXRD Analysis of Ball-Milled NC PbS MaterialFTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy)Fabrication and Characterization of a Flexible DetectorChoice of SubstrateDip or Soaking of PbS NC FilmsXRD Analysis of the PbS NC Films on FabricsUV-Vis Analysis of PbS NC Films on FabricsSEM Analysis of PbS NC Films on FabricsPhotoconductivity MeasurementConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesEffect of Stiffness in Sensitivity Enhancement of MEMS Force Sensor Using Rectangular Spade Cantilever for Micromanipulation ApplicationsIntroductionTheoretical Analysis and Mathematical EquationsBasic Operating PrincipleMechanical Sensing StructureModes of Operating of Rectangular Spade Microcantilever StructureDeflection Detection Method: Piezoresistive SensingSensitivity of MEMS Force SensorModeling of Rectangular Spade MicrocantileverDevice DesignResults and DiscussionDisplacement and Displacement SensitivityStress and Electrical SensitivityEffect of Stiffness on Electrical SensitivityApplication-Specific Operating RangeConclusionsReferencesSuccessive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Deposited ZnS-ZnO Thin Film CharacterizationIntroductionExperimental DetailsChemical Deposition of ZnS-Nanoparticle/ZnO-Nanoflower Thin FilmsCharacterization of ZnS-Nanoparticle/ZnO-Nanoflower FilmsResults and DiscussionFilm Formation of ZnS-Nanoparticle/ZnO-Nanoflower StructureThickness of ZnS-ZnO Thin FilmStructural StudiesRaman Spectroscopy StudiesSurface Morphological StudiesWettability StudiesOptical StudiesConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesState of Art for Virtual Fabrication of Piezoresistive MEMS Pressure SensorIntroductionSilicon-Based MEMS DevicesSoftware DetailsDesigningFabrication ProcessFabrication Methodology through SILVACO SoftwareConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesRole of Aqueous Electrolytes in the Performance of Electrochemical SupercapacitorsIntroductionTaxonomy of SupercapacitorsElectrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLCs)PseudocapacitorsHybrid CapacitorsBasic Requirements for Designing Electrolytes for SCDsEquivalent Series Resistance (ESR)Electrolyte Conductivity, Ion Solvation, Mobility of the Free Ions, and Solvent UpshotSalt Concentration EffectElectrochemical and Thermal StabilityElectrolytes and Their ClassificationsAqueous ElectrolytesAcidic ElectrolytesAlkaline ElectrolytesNeutral ElectrolytesChallenges in the Development of SCDs Electrolytes and Future Research DirectionsSummaryAcknowledgmentDeclaration of Competing InterestReferencesGraphene for Flexible Electronic DevicesIntroductionMechanical Properties of Flexible SystemsStructural Architecture and Design of Printed Flexible DevicesGraphene as Potential Material for Stretchable ElectronicsFlexible Graphene for Solar Cell DevicesReferencesFlexible Microfluidics Biosensor TechnologyIntroductionFlexible Microfluidics Biosensor TechnologyPaper as a Substrate for Flexible Microfluidic BiosensorsSelection Criteria for the Paper as Substrate Material for MicrofluidicsMicrofluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices (μPADs)Types of Paper and Its FunctionFluid Flow through PaperConclusionReferences