Applied Reliability for Engineers

Reliability HistoryNeed of Reliability in Product DesignReliability Application and Specialized AreasTerms and DefinitionsUseful Sources for Obtaining Information on ReliabilityMilitary and Other Reliability DocumentsScope of the BookProblemsReferencesBasic Mathematical ConceptsIntroductionArithmetic Mean and Mean DeviationArithmetic MeanMean DeviationBoolean Algebra LawsProbability Definition and PropertiesUseful DefinitionsCumulative Distribution FunctionProbability Density FunctionExpected ValueLaplace TransformLaplace Transform: Final-Value TheoremProbability DistributionsBinomial DistributionExponential DistributionRayleigh DistributionWeibull DistributionBathtub Hazard Rate Curve DistributionSolving First-Order Differential Equations Using Laplace TransformsProblemsReferencesReliability BasicsIntroductionBathtub Hazard Rate CurveGeneral Reliability-Related FormulasFailure (or Probability) Density FunctionHazard Rate FunctionGeneral Reliability FunctionMean Time to FailureReliability NetworksSeries NetworkParallel Networkk-out-of-m NetworkStandby SystemBridge NetworkProblemsReferencesReliability Evaluation MethodsIntroductionFailure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)Fault Tree Probability EvaluationMarkov MethodNetwork Reduction ApproachDecomposition ApproachDelta-Star MethodProbability Tree AnalysisBinomial MethodProblemsReferencesRobot ReliabilityIntroductionRobot Failure Classifications, Causes, and Corrective MeasuresRobot Reliability–Related Survey Results and Robot Effectiveness Dictating FactorsRobot Reliability MeasuresRobot ReliabilityMean Time to Robot Failure (MTTRF)Robot Hazard RateMean Time to Robot ProblemsReliability Analysis of Electric and Hydraulic RobotsReliability Analysis of the Electric RobotReliability Analysis of the Hydraulic RobotModels for Performing Robot Reliability and Maintenance StudiesProblemsReferencesComputer and Internet ReliabilityIntroductionComputer Failure Causes and Issues in Computer System ReliabilityComputer Failure Classifications, Hardware and Software Error Sources, and Computer Reliability MeasuresComputer Hardware Reliability versus Software ReliabilityFault MaskingTriple Modular Redundancy (TMR)TMR System Maximum Reliability with Perfect VoterTMR System with Voter Time-Dependent Reliability and Mean Time to FailureN-Modular Redundancy (NMR)Software Reliability Assessment MethodsClassification I: Software MetricsDesign Phase MeasureCode and Unit Test Phase MeasureClassification II: Software Reliability ModelsMills ModelMusa ModelClassification III: Analytical MethodsInternet Facts, Figures, Failure Examples, and Reliability-Associated ObservationsInternet Outage Categories and an Approach for Automating Fault Detection in Internet ServicesModels for Performing Internet Reliability and Availability AnalysisProblemsReferencesTransportation Systems Failures and Reliability ModelingIntroductionDefects in Vehicle Parts and Classifications of Vehicle FailuresMechanical Failure-Associated Aviation AccidentsRail Defects and Weld Failures and Mechanical Failure-Associated Delays in Commuter Rail ServiceRoad and Rail Tanker Failure Modes and Failure ConsequencesShip-Related Failures and their CausesFailures in Marine Environments and Microanalysis Techniques for Failure InvestigationThermomechanical AnalysisThermogravimetric AnalysisDifferential Scanning CalorimetryFourier Transform Infrared SpectroscopyMathematical Models for Performing Reliability Analysis of Transportation SystemsProblemsReferencesPower System ReliabilityIntroductionPower System Reliability-Related Terms and DefinitionsPower System Service Performance IndicesLoss of Load Probability (LOLP)Availability Analysis of a Single Power Generator UnitAvailability Analysis of Transmission and Associated SystemsProblemsReferencesMedical Equipment ReliabilityIntroductionMedical Equipment Reliability-Related Facts and FiguresMedical Devices and Medical Equipment/Devices CategoriesMethods and Procedures for Improving Reliability of Medical EquipmentParts Count MethodFailure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)General ApproachFault Tree Analysis (FTA)Markov MethodHuman Error in Medical EquipmentImportant Medical Equipment/Device Operator ErrorsMedical Devices with High Incidence of Human ErrorMedical Equipment Maintainability and MaintenanceMedical Equipment MaintainabilityReasons for Maintainability Principles’ ApplicationMaintainability Design FactorsMaintainability MeasuresMedical Equipment MaintenanceIndicesMathematical ModelsModelSources for Obtaining Medical Equipment Reliability-Related DataUseful Guidelines for Healthcare and Reliability Professionals for Improving Medical Equipment ReliabilityProblemsReferencesMining Equipment ReliabilityIntroductionReasons for Improving Mining Equipment Reliability and Factors Impacting Mining System ReliabilityUseful Reliability-Related Measures for Mining EquipmentOpen-Pit System Reliability AnalysisOpen-Pit Parallel SystemOpen-Pit Series SystemDump-Truck Tire Reliability and the Factors Affecting Their LifeProgrammable Electronic Mining System FailuresSystematic FailuresRandom Hardware FailuresDesigning Reliable Conveyor Belt Systems and Methods of Measuring Winder Rope DegradationMagnetic Nondestructive Testing MethodVisual Inspection MethodTypical Mining Equipment Maintenance Errors and Factors Contributing to Maintenance ErrorsUseful Engineering Design-Related Improvement Guidelines for Reducing Mining Equipment Maintenance ErrorsProblemsReferencesOil and Gas Industry Equipment ReliabilityIntroductionOptical Connector FailuresMechanical Seals’ FailuresMechanical Seals’ Typical Failure Modes and Their CausesCorrosion-Related FailuresTypes of Corrosion or Degradation that Can Cause FailureCorrosion/Condition Monitoring MethodsFatigue Damage Initiation Assessment in Oil and Gas Steel PipesOil and Gas Pipeline Fault Tree AnalysisCommon Cause Failures Defense Approach for Oil and Gas Industry Safety Instrumented SystemsCommon Cause Failures Defense ApproachTask I: SchedulingTask II: Preparation, Execution, and RestorationTask III: Failure ReportingTask IV: Failure AnalysisTask V: ImplementationTask VI: Validation and Continuous ImprovementsProblemsReferences