Manufacturing and Industrial Sectors

The manufacturing and industrial sectors have also been taking advantage of block- chain technology, as follows:

Provenance

This blockchain technology aims to provide solutions for transparency in product supply chains. According to the whitepaper for Provenance, presented by social enterprise Project Provenance Ltd., people have little information about the products we use. Our products travel through large networks of retailers before finally reaching us, and hence, there is the need for transparency in product supply chains [47].

JioCoin

JioCoin is a project being developed by Reliance Industries in India. This project utilizes blockchain technology to work on supply chain management and smart contracts, along with their own digital currency, Jiocoin [48].

Hijro

Hijro is a company based in Lexington, Kentucky, working on connecting users to global networks through blockchain technology, to provide financial and supply chain solutions [49].

Governmental Services

Blockchain has applications in governmental services, including for:

Dubai

Dubai is currently planning to be the first blockchain-powered government, by 2020. There are various projects currently running in Dubai based on blockchain technology, which has gained support from businesses, the government, and entrepreneurs. A global blockchain council was formed in 2016, with more than 30 government entities and international companies. The global council members have announced projects utilizing blockchain technology in various possible fields, such as health, business registrations, shipping, and so on [50].

Estonia

The Estonian government is also utilizing blockchain technology. They have partnered with companies and other organizations to move their citizens’ health records into blockchain technology and have been involved in creating data centers to move other public records into blockchain [51].

South Korea

Even though South Korea has banned initial coin offerings (ICOs), it is hoping to utilize blockchain technology and hence has an agreement with Samsung SDS to create a platform based on this technology for welfare, public safety, and transportation. Scheduled for completion by 2022, the project aims to increase transparency in the government services provided by South Korea [51].

GovCoin

The distribution and recording of benefit payments are among the most important government processes, and this is where the UK Department of Work and Pensions is investigating the use of blockchain technology. This was a matter of discussion for the UK government in a budget speech presented in 2017 [52].

Followmyvote.com

This is a blockchain technology-based innovation to allow secure transparent online voting. The voting system is transparent and increases voter turnout by reducing voter fraud [53].

Charity

Even charitable organizations benefit from blockchain. For instance, BitGive, founded in 2013, is the first Bitcoin nonprofit organization in the United States, a status that allows federal tax exemption status. BitGives is a well known nonprofit organizations, in addition to Save the Children, the Water Project, Medic Mobile, ТЕСНО, and several other. BitGive provides greater transparency, so donors can easily see what their donations are used for [54].

Retail Services

Blockchain has been utilized by retail service providers, such as:

OpenBazaar

This is a free online marketplace, which offers selling anything w'ithout any third parties or intermediaries involved. There is no platform fee for selling and no restrictions. OpenBaazar connects people directly, via a peer-to-peer network, and people can pay with 50+ cryptocurrencies. The marketplace follows blockchain technology, and hence there is no one with control over it. Everyone shopping online on this platform contributes to the network [55].

Loyyal

As with the current trend, companies offer their users various incentives and rewards for using their services or being a part of the company in some way. A similar concept is used by Loyyal, a California-based company that has created a platform based on blockchain technology to allow companies to offer loyalty packages. It allows consumers to combine and trade their loyalty rewards earned. It uses proprietary blockchain, as well as smart contract technology [56].

Real Estate Services

Ubitquity LLC, founded in 2016 and based in Delaware, is focused on enterprise real estate organizations, government municipalities, and resellers. It is one of the first real estate companies to incorporate blockchain into its services. The company is working on building and maintaining a platform based on blockchain technology, to serve the real estate industry. This also includes helping governments w'ith real estate activities, such as legal process. This technology is expected to smooth out the complicated legal process and make real estate transactions easier for everyone [57].

Transportation and Tourism Sectors

Here are some examples of blockchain usage in the transportation and tourism sectors:

IBM Blockchain Solution

Among the various solutions offered by blockchain, IBM is incorporating the technology for the vehicle leasing industry. The company is working on making all of a vehicle’s history available to potential clients, so they can easily navigate what they are going to lease. This would benefit everyone associated w'ith the chain in leasing, from a government office registering vehicle information, to insurance agencies trying to set insurance rates. Manufacturers also could use the technology to determine recalls costs, and so on [58].

Lazooz

Based in Israel, Lazooz is a company working on systems for sustainability. As with the concept of sustainability, this technology encourages smart transportation by using existing resources fully before adding a new transportation. The company believes that real-time ridesharing with the use of blockchain technology will help in maintaining sustainability, by enabling people with private cars to share a journey with others traveling in same direction. The company believes this will not only save money but also enhance social relationships [59].

Media Services

Media services have also benefited from blockchain technology, for example:

Kodak

A technology company focused on imaging, Kodak has also begun working with WENN Digital on blockchain technology: KODAKOne (an image rights management platform) and KODAKCoin (photo-centric cryptocurrency). These technologies utilize blockchain and will empower photographers and agencies. For example, image registration and rights management will be handled in blockchain, to allow transparent accounts [60,61].

Ujomusic

Ujomusic is a platform for singer-songwriters and musicians, to allow them to create records of their ownership, thus facilitating the payment of royalties. The platform uses blockchain technology to bring this about [62].

 
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