Smart Contracts

Blockchain might also be used in other applications being developed beyond sell/buy currency transactions, and could also carry more focused instructions that can be embedded into a smart contract blockchain. In other words, a smart contract is a methodology using Bitcoin to form agreements between people by using blockchain technology.

There are basically three elements in a smart contract, namely autonomy, decentralization, and self-sufficiency. In this context, autonomy means that once a smart contract has been launched and run, no further contract with its owner is required. The smart contract in itself is sufficient to raise the funding to provide the services for issuing equity and speedy than the needed resources like storage or processing capacity.

Smart contracts are likewise decentralized, such that they don’t remain alive on a solitary brought together worker; they are circulated and self-executable over the shared system [2]. Agreements don’t make anything conceivable which was already conceivable, rather they permit general issues to be settled, which limits the requirement for trust. Negligible trust frequently makes situations more advantageous by removing human judgment from the conditions, which permits total mechanization. One case of smart contracts is the setting up of programmed installments for wagering. A code or smart agreement can be composed that delivers an installment when a specific estimation of a specific trade of products is set off, or when something unfolds in reality.

Blockchain Protocol Projects

There are many projects being designed and developed that loosely use blockchain technology. Some common projects are discussed here. Ripple is one such category. It is a gateway, a payment system which exchange, and a remittance network, and it contains a smart contract system called Codius. Another type of project counterparty which is an overlay protocol for exchange system and currency issuance. Ethereum is a well-known and widely used blockchain protocol project. It is a general-purpose complete Turing cryptocurrency platform. NXT is an alternative coin mined with a proof-of-state consensus model. Many more such projects are available in the market, such as Open Transactions, BitShare. Open Assets and colored coins.

Blockchain Ecosystem

Blockchain is a decentralized record that is utilized to store transactions in an enormous calculating framework that might also include other useful functions to help with correspondence, stockpiling, document preparation, and filing. In the event of lack of capacity, the greatest need is for the secure, decentralized, off-chain stockpiling of documents, for example, electronic health records, or the genome, or straightforward Microsoft Word reports. The blockchain transaction that enlists the advantages of enhanced security, greater transparency, improved traceability, increased efficiency and speed, reduced costs, etc., can incorporate a pointer and access control strategy and benefits from off-chain record storage. In the case of file processing, the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) is used. The IPFS is a worldwide system of shared frameworks. It is a framework that is utilized for requesting and serving a record from various locations where the document may exist. Blockchain record exchange isn’t just made for safeguarding, in addition it requires a method for recovering and controlling recently recorded blockchain resources of past dates, which may be had with specific algorithms.

Motivation and Contribution

In today’s ICT Era, user/customers expect to access their health information (and any other useful information, for example, related to news, banking, test results) instantly. Therefore, the information provider must make the information available as early as possible, by adopting the use of technology. Based on the literature, the health care industry is lagging behind, compared to other industries, such as food, retail, banks, insurance, etc. Also, the sharing of health data among different organizations is very difficult, due to variations in formats and standards. Therefore, centralized storage is needed, to ensure the integrity, privacy, and security of data. The contribution of the proposed work is to:

  • 1. Propose an implementation of EHR on the Hyperledger platform.
  • 2. Make available the full health history of a patient at any hospital.
  • 3. Design methods to deal with the security and privacy of data while it is being transmitted and stored.
  • 4. Store the data centrally, to ensure its integrity.
  • 5. Design a system or process on the cloud, to achieve the desired goals.
  • 6. Propose the analysis of the implementation, and propose the validation of and suggestions for blockhain-based EHR implementation.

Organization of Chapter

The chapter is organized as follows: Section 13.2 presents and discusses a review of privacy preservation in the EHR. Section 13.3 presents how blockchain solutions can address health care challenges. Section 13.4 presents the application of blockchain beyond digital currency (Bitcoin), with special mention of EHRs. Section 13.5 presents the limitations and challenges of blockchain. Finally, the conclusion is presented in Section 13.6.

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