Animal-Based Bioactive Peptides

First of all, milk is found as a good source of peptides. The Glu-Leu amino acid sequence is derived from casein protein hydrolysate, which has been shown to have a really good antioxidant activity (Suetsuna, Ukeda, and Ochi 2000). Milk includes many kinds of peptides. It has been found that peptides from milk proteins inhibit the enzymatic or chemical peroxidation of essential fatty acids and most of the peptides are encoded by the U-casein sequence. The addition of leucine or proline to the N-terminal of the His-His dipeptide has been reported to increase antioxidant activity and also has synergistic effects with antioxidants (Hartmann and Meisel 2007). With biological activities of Lactobacillus plantarum it has been found as an antioxidant peptide strain from fermented milk and evaluated that L. plantarum 55 strain was the most active as an antioxidant (Aguilar-Toala et al. 2017). Whey protein concentrates are a protein complex derived from milk and compared to other protein sources, whey protein concentrates contain branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine in high concentrations. In a study on the production of potential antioxidant hydrolysates by using alcalase enzyme at certain time intervals from whey, it was determined that the smallest molecular weight of the four fractions obtained had the highest antioxidant activity (Peng, Xiong, and Kong 2009). In enzymatic hydrolysis of a-lactoglobulin and a-lactalbumin have found that tryptophan, one of the amino acids, had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by methionine and cysteine, respectively. The antioxidant feature is due to its behavior as a hydrogen donor. In addition, the peptide with the Trp-Tyr-Ser-Leu-Ala-Met-Ala-Ala-Ser -Asp-Ile series was compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and the peptide had higher antioxidant potential (Hernandez-Ledesma et al. 2005). With applying QSAR modeling on p-lactoglobulin there are found tripeptides containing Cys and Trp generally have higher antioxidant activity (Tian, Fang, and Jiang 2015). Another study was conducted with casein and whey protein in camel milk. Peptides that are digested with pepsin from camel milk significantly increased the tolerance of yeast cells to peroxide-induced oxidative stress. The results showed that camel milk casein and whey proteins have bioactive peptides, which are important radical-relieving activities, so they can be potential peptides for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases (Ibrahim, Isono, and Miyata 2018).

In a study various activities of the egg yolk protein were evaluated, and hydrolysis was performed with pepsin to obtain the peptides. Among the peptides obtained,

Tyr-Ile-Asn-GIn-Met-Pro-GIn-Lys-Ser-Arg-Glu peptide sequence has been reported to have very strong antioxidant activity (Zambrowicz et al. 2015). In another study with egg yolk, phosphite was digested with phosphite trypsin enzyme and the soluble peptides were exchanged through a 1 kDa membrane. The retentate (that is, the unfiltered portion) was then called the oligophosphospeptides of the phosphite, which were divided into three fractions on the anion exchange column. (Xu, Katayama, and Mine 2007). Trypsin enzyme digested egg white peptides showed a huge increasing effect in plasma radical scavenging (antioxidant activity) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (Manso et al. 2008). The antioxidant activity of the properties of the peptides belonging to traditionally produced goat and cow cheeses were examined and found that the ripening period increased the antioxidant activity of the produced peptides (Oztiirk 2015). Ovotransferrin, an egg yolk protein, 278P, and thermolysis enzymes have been used, and ovotransferrin peptides have been found to have high antioxidant activity. In addition, ovotransferrin peptides have more powerful anticancer activity than single- step enzyme hydrolysates as well as natural ovotransferrin. (Lee et al. 2017)

A peptide isolated from the hydrolysate of dark chicken meat (Tyr-Ala-Ser-Gly- Arg) was seen to be matched with the amino acid at the 143-147 amino acid residues in chicken (3-actin and also revealed a high potential of antioxidant activities on peroxyl radicals (Fukada et al. 2016).

In a study, the maturation period increases the antioxidant activity of peptides in goat and cow cheeses produced in traditional methods (Oztiirk 2015).

The protein isolates of sea jellyfish (R. Esculentum) have many benefits, especially as they have important radical savage activities that make them a good antioxidant (Yu et al. 2006).

Proteases have been used to evaluate different proteins of sardine (Sardinella aurita). Hydrolysate, which has the highest antioxidant activity, was obtained by extracting sardine with a natural enzyme. The peptide with the Leu-His-Tyr amino acid sequence from these has found as a strong antioxidant (Bougatef et al. 2010).

Some antioxidant peptides have been found from Mactra veneriformis protein hydrolysate (Leu-Tyr-Glu-Gly-Tyr, Trp-Asp-Asp-Met-Glu-Lys, Thr-Asp-Tyr, Leu- Asp-Tyr and Trp-Gly-Asn-Val-Ser- Gly-Ser-Pro) (R. Liu et al. 2015). Peptides with high antioxidant properties from their proteins in horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) were also isolated. The sequence of the isolated amino acid was determined as Ala-Cys-Phe-Leu (518.5 Da) and it was determined that this fraction was more effective in preventing the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to a-tocopherol (Sampath Kumar, Nazeer, and Jaiganesh 2011).

In another study protein hydrolysate provided from Flavourzyme-treated round scad (Decapterus maruadsi) had high contents of antioxidant-potentiating amino acids, for example leucine, arginine, histidine, and lysine (Thiansilakul, Benjakul, and Shahidi 2007). Also was it determined that oxidative reactions were prevented by adding pigs’ blood plasma (2.5%) containing proteins that have antioxidant activity, for example serum transferrin and albumin to the pork meat products by drying in a spray dryer (Faraji, Decker, and Aaron 1991).

In another study porcine plasma using alcalase enzyme was digested; then the hydrolysate was appraised for antioxidant activity using metal chelation assays, scavenging of DPPH radical, liposome oxidation, and reduction of iron (Liu et al. 2010). On the other hand, in a different study, peptides (Asp-Ala-Gln-Glu-Lys-Leu- Glu, Glu-Glu-Leu-Asp-Asn-Ala-Leu-Asn, Ile-Glu-Ala-Glu-Gly-Glu, and Val-P ro-Ser-Ile-Asp-Asp-Gln-Glu-Glu-Leu-Met) defined as active antioxidant components of pig myo brillar protein hydrolysate (papain hydrolysis derived), the hydrolysate were appraised in oleic acid test system for their antioxidant potency (Saiga and Nishimura 2013). When these four active peptides are compared, the hindrance of linoleic acid peroxidation is deemed to depend on the length of the chain, while the Ile-Glu-Ala-Glu-Gly-Glu peptide had the least activity in comparison to longer peptides (Aluko 2015).

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