An Effective-Based Personalized Medicine Recommendation System Using an Ensemble of Extreme Learning Machine Model


As a new revolution of the Internet, the Internet of Health Things (IoT) is quickly attaining ground as a new research area in different academic and industrial disciplines, particularly in healthcare. Noticeably, because of the advanced propagation of wearable devices and smartphones, the Internet of Things (IoT)-based technologies grow healthcare from a traditional hub-based system to a personalized healthcare system (PHS). A rapid improvement in health data requirements, as well as variations in information, is needed around the world. Based on the study, more U.S. adults make use of the Internet and some users go online to derive health data about diseases, diagnoses, and appropriate remedies [1]. These effects influence the patient-doctor relationship, so that educated patients can easily communicate with doctors [2]. Therefore, patients become more active in making a decision. As a result, the modified way of thinking is named as patient empowerment [3]. However, information overloads, as well as irregular data, are mainly considered to be barriers to attaining results on personal health conditions and necessary actions [4].

In the case of large-scale medical data on diverse channels such as news sites, web forums, and so on, a manifold as well as heterogeneous clinical vocabulary poses an alternate barrier for nonprofessionals [5]. Hence, enhanced delivery of medical context could make users find related data. This medical data is accessible for the patient in making a decision with a dense amount of diverse places [6]. The personal health record system (PHRS) refers to centralizing a patient’s health data and enables the owner and authenticated health experts [3]. A recommender system (RS) depends upon the interest of users’ details and has evolved in recent decades. A common and familiar one is Amazon’s service for products. The main aim of the RS model is to deal with the particular needs of health applications. A health record system (HRS) is an evolution of RS as developed by Kantor et al. [7].

Here, an HRS suggests that the required item is a part of nonconfidential technically approved clinical data that is not connected with personal clinical records. Therefore, an HRS’s definitions are derived by individualized health information such as documented personal health records (PHRs). Based on [8], it is a source of data assumed with the user profile of RS. The key objective of an HRS is to provide the user with clinical data that has to be related to the clinical deployment of the patient correlated with the concerned PHR. Relevant medical data might be suggested to health experts with the provided PHR. Also, it is recommended for nonpro- fessional's inspection of corresponding PHR.

According to the medical expert, HRS must recommend clinical data that becomes more extensive for a patient. The effective combination of a health-based data model is significant for HRSs. As shown in Fig. 6.1. profile-relied HRS units are executed as the expansion of previous PHR technique.

Data entry of a PHR database is comprised of clinical records of PHR authority. The provided medical factor states that an HRS determines a collection of capable items of interest. These items generate from trustworthy health data repositories and might be shown as PHRs online. Hence, it is feasible for computing and offering related data items from secured health-based data repositories. There are two different scenarios as follows.

An RS method is a type of data filtering approach that seeks for predicting fidelity or priority where the user has the desired entity. This is vastly applied in recommending books, videos, and news articles through the Internet. For healthcare application, the RS techniques enclose in making the decision to maintain personal care [9], finding major suggestions between medical experts, exploring preventative healthcare to prepare personalized therapy [10], supplying personalized healthcare assistance, and recommending patients and doctors based on existing consultation records. Widely, it has two types of RS: Collaborative Filtering (CF), which finds the

System context of an HRS-enabled PHR system

FIGURE 6.1 System context of an HRS-enabled PHR system.

communication among patients and doctors; and Content-Based (CB), which identifies entities for the user as preferred [11].

In particular, CF techniques are employed in analyzing relationships among users and interdependencies items to find priorities affinity over individuals. Matrix Factorization (MF) is applied in familiar realizations of collaborative filtering that tends to scalability as well as domain-free flexibility. MF undergoes characterization in users and items under the application of vectors of secondary features, in which a user’s communication with an item is defined by the interior product of latent vectors. Consequently, hybrid methods are integrated with CB and CF models to resolve particular constraints. RS understands regarding user’s priorities between items by explicit feedback such as ratings and reviews, while implicit feedback is in the form of presented preferences stated by natural observations. In [12], developers found that problems such as the integration of weak ties and alternate data sources could be applied to uncover identities of peoples from the anonymized data set. Therefore, domains of RSs in health-based medication, remedies, and initial assignment still have ineffective trustworthiness and stability. In point of patients’ view, these systems are capable of providing desired suggestions and protect over the worst RS to be more effective. Generally, insurance-based firms as well as healthcare centers focus on enhancing recommendation values by developing capable merit of RS.

This chapter introduces an effective MRS through the use of data mining and deep learning methodologies. The presented MRS involves a set of components, namely database system, data preparation, RS method, model validation, and data visualization. For the RS model, a novel ELM ensemble classifier, namely b-ELM, incorporates the Bag of Little Bootstraps concepts into the ELM.

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