Handbook of Harnessing Biomaterials in Nanomedicine: Preparation, Toxicity, and Applications

Biomaterial-Based Particulate Drug CarriersIntroductionThe Needs for Drug CarriersDrug Carriers: Essential RequirementsMajor Categories of Drug CarriersCarrier-Mediated Drug TargetingBiomaterial-Based Particulate Drug Carriers: Advantages and DrawbacksA Wide Choice of Raw MaterialsUtilizing Nature’s Sites for Targeting and High-Affinity BindingLower Risks of Adverse Effects, Toxicity, and Undesirable Immune ResponsesDrawbacks of Biomaterial-Based Particulate Drug CarriersParticle Size, Route of Administration, and Therapeutic NeedsThe Conceptual Approach and Definitions of Passive and Active TargetingSystemic Administration, Passive and Active TargetingAdministration by Local InjectionOral Administration of Drug-Carrier FormulationsConclusions and Future ProspectsSingle-Chain Polymer Nanoparticles for Application in NanomedicineIntroductionSingle-Chain Polymer NanoparticlesChain-Collapse StrategiesHomo-Functional Chain CollapseHetero-Bifunctional Chain CollapseCross-Linker-Mediated Chain CollapseOne-Block Collapse of Diblock or Triblock CopolymersCharacterization and Physical Properties of SCPNsApplications and Future PerspectivesPolyethylene Glycol Polyester Block Copolymers: Biocompatible Carriers for Nanoparticulate Drug DeliveryIntroductionSynthesis of PEO-Poly(e-Caprolactone)Polymer Characterization of PEO-PCLCharacterization of PEO-PCL MicellesCMC measurementsRelative core microviscosityDrug Delivery from Diblock PEO-PCL Copolymer MicellesDrug Delivery of Anti-Cancer Agents from Diblock PEO-PCL MicellesFlory–Huggins Interaction Parameters Between Drugs and Polymeric CoresDrug Delivery from Triblock Copolymer Micelles of PEO and PCL BlocksDrug Delivery from Star Copolymer Micelles of PEO and PCLDrug Delivery from Substituted Diblock PEO-PCL Copolymer MicellesCharacterization of Cellular Uptake and Pre- Clinical Efficacy in vivoCellular Internalization of PEO-PCL MicellesCellular Distribution of PEO-PCL MicellesEfficacy and Stability of PEO-PCL Micelle Drug Delivery in vivoConcluding RemarksRecent Progress in Polymer Therapeutics as NanomedicinesIntroductionPolymeric BackboneDegradable polymers backboneNon-degradable polymer backboneLinkerTargeting MoietyPolymeric DrugsPolymer–Drug ConjugatesPolymer–Protein ConjugatesDefined Shape Polymeric NanocarriersSelf-Assembled PolymersDendrimersThe Influence of Shape on PerformancePolymer–DNA/RNA ComplexesCombination TherapySummary and a Look Into the FuturePolysaccharides as Nanomaterials for TherapeuticsIntroductionPolysaccharidesChitosanAlginateHyaluronanDextranCyclodextrinsArabinogalactanPullulanHeparinMain Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Preparation from PolysaccharidesCross-LinkingCovalent cross-linkingIonic cross-linkingPolyelectrolyte Complexation (PEC)Self-AssemblyPolysaccharide-Based NanoparticlesChitosan-Based NanoparticlesAlginate-Based NanoparticlesHyaluronan-Based NanoparticlesDextran-Based NanoparticlesCyclodextrin-Based NanoparticlesArabinogalactan-Based NanoparticlesPullulan-Based NanoparticlesPolysaccharide-Coated NanoparticlesChitosan-Coated NanoparticlesHyaluronan-Coated NanoparticlesHeparin- and Dextran-Coated NanoparticlesSummaryRNAi as New Class of NanomedicinesIntroductionCell-Type Specific DeliveryAntibody-Mediated siRNA DeliveryLigand-Mediated siRNA DeliveryAptamer-Mediated siRNA DeliveryIntracellular Trafficking of siRNAsStrategies for Endosomal EscapeCationic LipidspH-Sensitive LipoplexespH-Sensitive PolyplexesFusogenic ProteinsDynamic PolyconjugatesOff-Target Effects of siRNAsConclusionsNovel RNA Interference-Based Nanomedicines for Treating Viral InfectionsIntroductionDNA VirusesHepatitis В Virus (HBV)Human Papillomavirus (HPV)Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)Positive-Strand RNA VirusesFlavivirusesHepatitis C Virus (HCV)SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)RetrovirusesHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Negative-Sense RNA VirusesRespiratory Syncytial VirusEbola (EBOV)InfluenzaConclusionsDetection and Description of Tissue Disease: Advances in the Use of Nanomedicine for Medical ImagingIntroductionContrast Media for Computed TomographyMacromolecular Contrast AgentsMicellesLiposomesDendrimersOther Radioopaque ElementsTargetingCT Contrast Agent SummaryUltrasoundShellCoreTargeting InflammationTargeting CancerSummaryImage-Based High-Content Analysis, Stem Cells and Nanomedicines: A Novel Strategy for Drug DiscoveryIntroductionImage-Based High-Content ScreeningStem Cells Used for Lead DiscoveryStem CellsHuman Embryonic Stem CellsAdult Mesenchymal Stem CellsInduced Pluriputent Stem CellsPersonalized Medicine PlatformsStem Cells as Tools for Improvement of Safety and ToxicologyAdvances in Nanomedicine for Drug Discovery Using HCSConcluding RemarksWrong Resemblance? Role of the Immune System in the Biocompatibility of Nanostructured MaterialsIntroductionBasic Functions of the Immune SystemAntigen Recognition by AntibodiesAntibody Effector Mechanisms and the Activation of the Complement SystemCell-Bound ReceptorsNanomaterials and the Immune SystemBiopolymers and the Immune ResponseSize, Shape, and the Immune ResponseStructural Decay of Adsorbed Proteins and the Immune ResponseConclusionsComplement Activation, Immunogenicity, and Immune Suppression as Potential Side Effects of LiposomesIntroductionTypes and Features of Immune Responses to LiposomesGeneral Causes Behind Immune Recognition of LiposomesConsequences of Immune Recognition of LiposomesAcute Hypersensitivity ReactionsSymptoms and occurrenceComplement activation by liposomes as an underlying mechanism of hypersensitivity reactionsMechanism of Liposome Reactions and Its Individual VariationImmunogenicity of LiposomesImmune Suppression by LiposomesConclusions and OutlookBiomolecular Assemblies as Multifunctional Drug DesignsIntroductionAlbumin: The Ideal Drug Delivery ScaffoldAlbumin-ConjugationBiomolecular Albumin-Oligonucleotide AssembliesModular DesignsAlbumin-Oligonucleotide ConstructsApplication for Half-Life Extension of Nucleic Acid AptamersFuture PerspectivesRational Design of Polymeric Nanoconstructs for Drug Delivery and Biomedical ImagingIntroductionSpherical Polymeric NanoparticlesDiscoidal Polymeric NanoconstructsDPNs Softness and PhagocytosisμPlates: Implantable SystemsModeling the Vascular Dynamics of Polymeric NanoconstructsConclusions and Future PerspectivesBarriers in the Tumor Microenvironment to Nanoparticle ActivityBarriers in the Tumor Microenvironment to Nanoparticle UptakeNanoparticles and the Tumor Blood VesselsNanoparticles and ECMNanoparticles and the Lymphatic SystemNanoparticle Interactions with Different Cellular Populations of the Tumor MicroenvironmentInteraction with Cancer Associated FibroblastsInteraction with Immune CellsInteraction with Cancer Stem CellsNanoparticles and Tumor MetabolismNanoparticles and Acidic Extracellular pHNanoparticles and HypoxiaNanoparticles and Glucose MetabolismDoxil® — The First FDA-Approved Nano-Drug: From an Idea to a ProductHistorical PerspectivesFirst-Generation Liposomal Doxorubicin — Liver-Directed Liposomal DoxorubicinBackgroundLiposomal Doxorubicin (First Generation): From Design to Formulation, Characterization, and StabilityCytotoxicity to Cells in Culture (in vitro)Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution Studies in MiceToxicityTherapeutic efficacyScale-UpOLV-DOX Clinical TrialsWhat Was Known in 1985 on “First in Man” Studies and the Clinical Use of Liposomes as Carriers of Drugs and Imaging Agents?Phase I Clinical Trials of Liposomal Doxorubicin (OLV-DOX)OLV-DOX Pharmacokinetics, Biodistribution, and in vivo Imaging in HumansConclusions of Our Clinical Experience with OLV-DOX as the Basis for the Development of Novel Liposomal DOX for Treatment of Metastatic TumorsDoxil® DevelopmentTurning DOX-OLV Failure into Doxil SuccessRequirements to Achieve Therapeutically Efficacious Passively Targeted Drug Loaded Liposomes and Means to Fulfill ThemLiposomes Having Prolonged Blood CirculationThe Lesson Learned from Pegylated ProteinsSelection of Pegylated Nanoliposomes as the Basis of DoxilRemote Loading of Doxorubicin into Nano Sterically Stabilized Liposomes (nSSL) to Form DoxilThe need for remote loadingDrug classificationRemote loading optimizationAmmonium sulfate transmembrane gradient driven doxorubicin loading into nSSLThe Role of Drug Release Rate (koff)Doxil: Each Part MattersDoxil-Related I.P.Doxil Performance in HumansPharmacokinetics and Passive Targeting to TumorsDoxil TolerabilityDoxil Therapeutic IndicationsConclusions, Take-Home Lessons, and Future DirectionsDoxil: Historical PerspectivesPersonal Touch
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